LEARN NC

K–12 teaching and learning · from the UNC School of Education

  1. Kindergarten – Grade 5
    1. Introduction
    2. Anchor Standards
    3. Reading: Literature
    4. Reading: Informational Text
    5. Reading: Foundational Skills
    6. Writing
    7. Speaking & Listening
    8. Language
    9. Standard 10: Range, Quality, & Complexity
  2. Grades 6–12 ELA
    1. Anchor Standards
    2. Reading: Literature
    3. Reading: Informational Text
    4. Writing
    5. Speaking & Listening
    6. Language
    7. Standard 10: Range, Quality, & Complexity
  3. Grades 6–12 Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, & Technical Subjects
    1. Anchor Standards
    2. History/Social Studies
    3. Science & Technical Subjects
    4. Writing

Introduction

These standards are directed toward fostering students’ understanding and working knowledge of concepts of print, the alphabetic principle, and other basic conventions of the English writing system. These foundational skills are not an end in and of themselves; rather, they are necessary and important components of an effective, comprehensive reading program designed to develop proficient readers with the capacity to comprehend texts across a range of types and disciplines. Instruction should be differentiated: good readers will need much less practice with these concepts than struggling readers will. The point is to teach students what they need to learn and not what they already know—to discern when particular children or activities warrant more or less attention.

Kindergarten

Print Concepts

  1. K.RFS.1 Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.
    1. K.RFS.1.1 Follow words from left to right, top to bottom, and page by page.
    2. K.RFS.1.2 Recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by specific sequences of letters.
    3. K.RFS.1.3 Understand that words are separated by spaces in print.
    4. K.RFS.1.4 Recognize and name all upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet.

Phonological Awareness

  1. K.RFS.2 Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).
    1. K.RFS.2.1 Recognize and produce rhyming words.
    2. K.RFS.2.2 Count, pronounce, blend, and segment syllables in spoken words.
    3. K.RFS.2.3 Blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken words.
    4. K.RFS.2.4 Isolate and pronounce the initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in three-phoneme (consonant-vowel-consonant, or CVC) words.1 (This does not include CVCs ending with /l/, /r/, or /x/.)
    5. K.RFS.2.5 Add or substitute individual sounds (phonemes) in simple, one-syllable words to make new words.

Phonics and Word Recognition

  1. K.RFS.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
    1. K.RFS.3.1 Demonstrate basic knowledge of letter-sound correspondences by producing the primary or most frequent sound for each consonant.
    2. K.RFS.3.2 Associate the long and short sounds with the common spellings (graphemes) for the five major vowels.
    3. K.RFS.3.3 Read common high-frequency words by sight (e.g., the, of, to, you, she, my, is, are, do, does).
    4. K.RFS.3.4 Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the sounds of the letters that differ.

Fluency

  1. K.RFS.4 Read emergent-reader texts with purpose and understanding.

Grade 1

Print Concepts

  1. 1.RFS.1 Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.
    1. 1.RFS.1.1 Recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence (e.g., first word, capitalization, ending punctuation).

Phonological Awareness

  1. 1.RFS.2 Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).
    1. 1.RFS.2.1 Distinguish long from short vowel sounds in spoken single-syllable words.
    2. 1.RFS.2.2 Orally produce single-syllable words by blending sounds (phonemes), including consonant blends.
    3. 1.RFS.2.3 Isolate and pronounce initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in spoken single-syllable words.
    4. 1.RFS.2.4 Segment spoken single-syllable words into their complete sequence of individual sounds (phonemes).

Phonics and Word Recognition

  1. 1.RFS.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
    1. 1.RFS.3.1 Know the spelling-sound correspondences for common consonant digraphs (two letters that represent one sound).
    2. 1.RFS.3.2 Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words.
    3. 1.RFS.3.3 Know final -e and common vowel team conventions for representing long vowel sounds.
    4. 1.RFS.3.4 Use knowledge that every syllable must have a vowel sound to determine the number of syllables in a printed word.
    5. 1.RFS.3.5 Decode two-syllable words following basic patterns by breaking the words into syllables.
    6. 1.RFS.3.6 Read words with inflectional endings.
    7. 1.RFS.3.7 Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.

Fluency

  1. 1.RFS.4 Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
    1. 1.RFS.4.1 Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
    2. 1.RFS.4.2 Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression.
    3. 1.RFS.4.3 Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

Grade 2

Phonics and Word Recognition

  1. 2.RFS.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
    1. 2.RFS.3.1 Distinguish long and short vowels when reading regularly spelled one-syllable words.
    2. 2.RFS.3.2 Know spelling-sound correspondences for additional common vowel teams.
    3. 2.RFS.3.3 Decode regularly spelled two-syllable words with long vowels.
    4. 2.RFS.3.4 Decode words with common prefixes and suffixes.
    5. 2.RFS.3.5 Identify words with inconsistent but common spelling-sound correspondences.
    6. 2.RFS.3.6 Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.

Fluency

  1. 2.RFS.4 Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
    1. 2.RFS.4.1 Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
    2. 2.RFS.4.2 Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression.
    3. 2.RFS.4.3 Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

Grade 3

Phonics and Word Recognition

  1. 3.RFS.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
    1. 3.RFS.3.1 Identify and know the meaning of the most common prefixes and derivational suffixes.
    2. 3.RFS.3.2 Decode words with common Latin suffixes.
    3. 3.RFS.3.3 Decode multisyllable words.
    4. 3.RFS.3.4 Read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.

Fluency

  1. 3.RFS.4 Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
    1. 3.RFS.4.1 Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
    2. 3.RFS.4.2 Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression.
    3. 3.RFS.4.3 Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

Grade 4

Phonics and Word Recognition

  1. 4.RFS.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
    1. 4.RFS.3.1 Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context.

Fluency

  1. 4.RFS.4 Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
    1. 4.RFS.4.1 Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
    2. 4.RFS.4.2 Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression.
    3. 4.RFS.4.3 Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

Grade 5

Phonics and Word Recognition

  1. 5.RFS.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
    1. 5.RFS.3.1 Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context.

Fluency

  1. 4.RFS.4 Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
    1. 4.RFS.4.1 Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
    2. 4.RFS.4.2 Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression.
    3. 4.RFS.4.3 Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.