LEARN NC

K–12 teaching and learning · from the UNC School of Education

  1. Kindergarten – Grade 5
    1. Introduction
    2. Anchor Standards
    3. Reading: Literature
    4. Reading: Informational Text
    5. Reading: Foundational Skills
    6. Writing
    7. Speaking & Listening
    8. Language
    9. Standard 10: Range, Quality, & Complexity
  2. Grades 6–12 ELA
    1. Anchor Standards
    2. Reading: Literature
    3. Reading: Informational Text
    4. Writing
    5. Speaking & Listening
    6. Language
    7. Standard 10: Range, Quality, & Complexity
  3. Grades 6–12 Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, & Technical Subjects
    1. Anchor Standards
    2. History/Social Studies
    3. Science & Technical Subjects
    4. Writing

Introduction

The following standards for grades 6–12 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. Each year in their writing, students should demonstrate increasing sophistication in all aspects of language use, from vocabulary and syntax to the development and organization of ideas, and they should address increasingly demanding content and sources. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades. The expected growth in student writing ability is reflected both in the standards themselves and in the collection of annotated student writing samples in Appendix C.

Grade 6

Text Types and Purposes

  1. 6.W.1 Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
    1. 6.W.1.1 Introduce claim(s) and organize the reasons and evidence clearly.
    2. 6.W.1.2 Support claim(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence, using credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
    3. 6.W.1.3 Use words, phrases, and clauses to clarify the relationships among claim(s) and reasons.
    4. 6.W.1.4 Establish and maintain a formal style.
    5. 6.W.1.5 Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the argument presented.
  2. 6.W.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
    1. 6.W.2.1 Introduce a topic; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    2. 6.W.2.2 Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
    3. 6.W.2.3 Use appropriate transitions to clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
    4. 6.W.2.4 Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
    5. 6.W.2.5 Establish and maintain a formal style.
    6. 6.W.2.6 Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the information or explanation presented
  3. 6.W.3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
    1. 6.W.3.1 Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
    2. 6.W.3.2 Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
    3. 6.W.3.3 Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another.
    4. 6.W.3.4 Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to convey experiences and events.
    5. 6.W.3.5 Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.

Production and Distribution of Writing

  1. 6.W.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
  2. 6.W.5 With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.
  3. 6.W.6 Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of three pages in a single sitting.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

  1. 6.W.7 Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and refocusing the inquiry when appropriate.
  2. 6.W.8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources.
  3. 6.W.9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    1. 6.W.9.1 Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres [e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and fantasy stories] in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics”).
    2. 6.W.9.2 Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not”).

Range of Writing

  1. 6.W.10 Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Grade 7

Text Types and Purposes

  1. 7.W.1 Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
    1. 7.W.1.1 Introduce claim(s), acknowledge alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
    2. 7.W.1.2 Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
    3. 7.W.1.3 Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), reasons, and evidence.
    4. 7.W.1.4 Establish and maintain a formal style.
    5. 7.W.1.5 Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
  2. 7.W.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
    1. 7.W.2.1 Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    2. 7.W.2.2 Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
    3. 7.W.2.3 Use appropriate transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
    4. 7.W.2.4 Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
    5. 7.W.2.5 Establish and maintain a formal style.
    6. 7.W.2.6 Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
  3. 7.W.3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
    1. 7.W.3.1 Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
    2. 7.W.3.2 Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
    3. 7.W.3.3 Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another.
    4. 7.W.3.4 Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events.
    5. 7.W.3.5 Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events.

Production and Distribution of Writing

  1. 7.W.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
  2. 7.W.5 With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.
  3. 7.W.6 Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and link to and cite sources as well as to interact and collaborate with others, including linking to and citing sources.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

  1. 7.W.7 Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions for further research and investigation.
  2. 7.W.8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
  3. 7.W.9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
      li>7.W.9.1 Apply grade 7 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history”).

    1. 7.W.9.2 Apply grade 7 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g. “Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims”).

Range of Writing

  1. 7.W.10 Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Grade 8

Text Types and Purposes

  1. 8.W.1 Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
    1. 8.W.1.1 Introduce claim(s), acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
    2. 8.W.1.2 Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
    3. 8.W.1.3 Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
    4. 8.W.1.4 Establish and maintain a formal style.
    5. 8.W.1.5 Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
  2. 8.W.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
    1. 8.W.2.1 Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    2. 8.W.2.2 Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
    3. 8.W.2.3 Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
    4. 8.W.2.4 Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
    5. 8.W.2.5 Establish and maintain a formal style.
    6. 8.W.2.6 Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
  3. 8.W.3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
    1. 8.W.3.1 Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
    2. 8.W.3.2 Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, and reflection, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
    3. 8.W.3.3 Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence, signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another, and show the relationships among experiences and events.
    4. 8.W.3.4 Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events.
    5. 8.W.3.5 Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events.

Production and Distribution of Writing

  1. 8.W.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
  2. 8.W.5 With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.
  3. 8.W.6 Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas efficiently as well as to interact and collaborate with others.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

  1. 8.W.7 Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.
  2. 8.W.8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
  3. 8.W.9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    1. 8.W.9.1 Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, or religious works such as the Bible, including describing how the material is rendered new”).
    2. 8.W.9.2 Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced”).

Range of Writing

  1. 8.W.10 Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Grade 9-10

The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.

Text Types and Purposes

  1. 9-10.W.1 Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
    1. 9-10.W.1.1 Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
    2. 9-10.W.1.2 Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.
    3. 9-10.W.1.3 Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
    4. 9-10.W.1.4 Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    5. 9-10.W.1.5 Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
  2. 9-10.W.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
    1. 9-10.W.2.1 Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    2. 9-10.W.2.2 Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
    3. 9-10.W.2.3 Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
    4. 9-10.W.2.4 Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.
    5. 9-10.W.2.5 Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    6. 9-10.W.2.6 Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
  3. 9-10.W.3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
    1. 9-10.W.3.1 Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
    2. 9-10.W.3.2 Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
    3. 9-10.W.3.3 Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole.
    4. 9-10.W.3.4 Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
    5. 9-10.W.3.5 Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.

Production and Distribution of Writing

  1. 9-10.W.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
  2. 9-10.W.5 Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.
  3. 9-10.W.6 Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

  1. 9-10.W.7 Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
  2. 9-10.W.8 Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
  3. 9-10.W.9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    1. 9-10.W.9.1 Apply grades 9–10 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work [e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare]”).
    2. 9-10.W.9.2 Apply grades 9–10 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning”).

Range of Writing

  1. 9-10.W.10 Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.

Grade 11-12

The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.

Text Types and Purposes

  1. 11-12.W.1 Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
    1. 11-12.W.1.1 Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
    2. 11-12.W.1.2 Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.
    3. 11-12.W.1.3 Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
    4. 11-12.W.1.4 Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    5. 11-12.W.1.5 Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented
  2. 11-12.W.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
    1. 11-12.W.2.1 Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    2. 11-12.W.2.2 Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
    3. 11-12.W.2.3 Use appropriate and varied transitions and syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
    4. 11-12.W.2.4 Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic.
    5. 11-12.W.2.5 Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    6. 11-12.W.2.6 Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
  3. 11-12.W.3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
    1. 11-12.W.3.1 Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation and its significance, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
    2. 11-12.W.3.2 Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
    3. 11-12.W.3.3 Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole and build toward a particular tone and outcome (e.g., a sense of mystery, suspense, growth, or resolution).
    4. 11-12.W.3.4 Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
    5. 11-12.W.3.5 Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.

Production and Distribution of Writing

  1. 11-12.W.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
  2. 11-12.W.5 Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.
  3. 11-12.W.6 Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

  1. 11-12.W.7 Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
  2. 11-12.W.8 Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation.
  3. 11-12.W.9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    1. 11-12.W.9.1 Apply grades 11–12 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century foundational works of American literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics”).
    2. 11-12.W.9.2 Apply grades 11–12 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning [e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court Case majority opinions and dissents] and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy [e.g., The Federalist, presidential addresses]”).

Range of Writing

  1. 11-12.W.10 Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes