Maximiliano I and Carlota
Joseph (1832–1867), an Austrian Hapsburg, and Marie Charlotte Amélie Léopoldine (1840–1890s), a French Bourbon, were crowned emperor and empress of Mexico by the invading French army in 1864. They moved into the old viceregal palace at Chapultepec in Mexico City, and shortly became very enamored of Mexico. Unfortunately, the couple were in charge of an occupying army in league with Mexican collaborators derided as “vendepatrias” — “country sellers.” Napoleon III hoped they would be puppets, while the imperial couple apparently thought they could reign. Maximiliano fatefully signed the death warrants of many captured Juaristas, which would be remembered after his defeat. After the French were driven out, Maximiliano surrendered to Juárez after a long, futile siege in Querétaro. He was court-martialed and executed for the death sentences carried out in his name in 1867. Carlota died much later as a mentally ill ward of the Vatican. Despite Mexico’s resistance of foreign control, many French and Austrian customs were introduced and adapted.