LEARN NC

  1. Credits & acknowledgments
  2. Introduction
  3. About this "digital textbook"
  1. 1 Secession
    1. 1.1
      Timeline of the Civil War, January–June 1861
      Timeline of secession and the beginning of the Civil War.
      • Format: timeline
      • Relevant dates: 1861
    2. 1.2
      Secession and civil war
      After Abraham Lincoln's election to the presidency in 1860, seven southern states seceded from the United States. Four more followed after South Carolina troops fired on Fort Sumter in April 1861 and Lincoln called for troops to put down the rebellion.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1860–1861
    3. 1.3
      Fort Sumter
      The first shots of the Civil War were fired at Fort Sumter, in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. Federal troops refused to leave the fort after South Carolina seceded, and South Carolina's forces fired on the fort on the morning of April 12, 1861.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1861
    4. 1.4
      North Carolinians debate secession
      Quotations from North Carolinians supporting and opposing secession in 1860–61. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: document
      • Relevant dates: 2009
    5. 1.5
      A Virginia boy volunteers
      Excerpt from the autobiography of David E. Johnston, who volunteered for the Confederate army in April 1861 at the age of 15. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: book (excerpt)
      • Relevant dates: 1861
    6. 1.6
      A UNC student asks to sign up
      Letter from Edward Hall Armstrong to his father in April 1861, asking permission to volunteer for the Confederate army. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: letter
      • Relevant dates: 1861
    7. 1.7
      North Carolina secedes
      Ordinance of secession passed by a convention of delegates from North Carolina counties on May 20, 1861. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: legislation
      • Relevant dates: 1861
    8. 1.8
      The North Carolina Oath of Allegiance
      Form that new soldiers, politicians, and civil servants had to fill out and sign after North Carolina's secession, by which they pledged loyalty to the state and renounced their loyalty to the United States.
      • Format: document
      • Relevant dates: 1861
    9. 1.9
      "The Southern Cross"
      George Tucker's adaptation of the Star Spangled Banner to the Confederate cause. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: music
      • Relevant dates: 1861–1865
  2. 2 The war begins, 1861
    1. 2.1
      North and South in 1861
      A comparison of the two sides at the beginning of the Civil War, focusing on their preparedness for war.
      • Format: book (excerpt)
      • Relevant dates: 1861
    2. 2.2
      Timeline of the Civil War, July 1861-July 1864
      Timeline of events from the First Battle of Bull Run to the summer of 1864.
      • Format: timeline
      • Relevant dates: 1861–1864
    3. 2.3
      The Civil War: From Bull Run to Appomattox
      Summary of military and political action in the U.S. Civil War, 1861–1865.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1861–1865
    4. 2.4
      North Carolina as a Civil War battlefield: May 1861-April 1862
      Summary of military operations in North Carolina in the first year of the Civil War, including Burnside's Expedition against the coast.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1861–81612
    5. 2.5
      The Union blockade
      At the beginning of the U.S. Civil War, Union forces blockaded Confederate ports to stop exports of cotton and imports of war supplies.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1861–1865
    6. 2.6
      Rose O'Neal Greenhow describes the Battle of Manassas
      Excerpt from the memoir of the Confederate spy in which she describes the First Battle of Manassas in June 1861 and her role in getting intelligence to Confederate generals. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: book (excerpt)
      • Relevant dates: 1861
    7. 2.7
      Tar Heels pitch in
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1861–1865
    8. 2.8
      Girls helping the cause
      Letter from a young woman to her grandmother in which she describes some of the many activities of southern women on the home front in North Carolina. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: letter
      • Relevant dates: 1861–1865
  3. 3 The Burnside Expedition, 1862
    1. 3.1
      The Burnside Expedition
      Union General Ambrose Burnside led an assault on Roanoke Island in February 1862. Burnside's forces would take and hold much of the coast of North Carolina for the remainder of the war.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1862
    2. 3.2
      War on the Outer Banks
      Article describes action along the coast of North Carolina during the Burnside Expedition, 1862.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1861–1862
    3. 3.3
      The battle of Roanoke Island
      Dispatch from Roanoke Island to northern newspapers after the Union victory in February 1862. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: newspaper
      • Relevant dates: 1862
    4. 3.4
      The burning of Elizabeth City
      Excerpt from Richard Creecy's memoir describing the fall of Elizabeth City to Union troops in February 1862 and its partial burning by residents. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: book (excerpt)
      • Relevant dates: 1862
    5. 3.5
      The Battle of New Bern
      The Battle of New Bern on March 14, 1862, won by Union General Burnside's forces, was the second of three major engagements on the North Carolina coast in the second year of the Civil War.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1862
  4. 4 The war continues, 1862–1864
    1. 4.1
      North Carolina as a Civil War battlefield, May 1862–November 1864
      Summary of military operations in North Carolina during the middle three years of the war, including the Confederate raid on Goldsboro, Potter's Raid, the Battle of Plymouth, and the sinking of the CSS Albemarle.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1862–1864
    2. 4.2
      The Raleigh Standard protests conscription
      Newspaper editorial protesting the expansion of conscription by the Confederate government in January 1864. Includes historical commentary and background on conscription in the Civil War.
      • Format: newspaper (excerpt)
      • Relevant dates: 1864
    3. 4.3
      Running the blockade
      Confederate spy Belle Boyd's tale of running the Union blockade from Wilmington, North Carolina. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: book (excerpt)
      • Relevant dates: 1861–1862
    4. 4.4
      Cargo manifests of Confederate blockade runners
      Cargo manifests of various ships that ran the Union blockade to bring goods from Nassau, in the Bahamas, to Wilmington, North Carolina, during the Civil War. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: document
      • Relevant dates: 1861–1865
    5. 4.5
      Freed people at New Bern
      Excerpt from the report of Vincent Colyer, Superintendent of the Poor for Union-occupied North Carolina during the Civil War, about his work with freedmen and escaped slaves. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: book (excerpt)
      • Relevant dates: 1862–1864
    6. 4.6
      The Emancipation Proclamation
      Proclamation issued by President Abraham Lincoln, January 1, 1863, freeing slaves in states or parts thereof then in rebellion against the United States. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: proclamation
      • Relevant dates: 1861–1865
    7. 4.7
      Iowa Royster on the march into Pennsylvania
      Letter from a North Carolina soldier two days before the Battle of Gettysburg, 1863. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: letter
      • Relevant dates: 1863
    8. 4.8
      The Battle of Gettysburg
      The diary of Confederate soldier Louis Leon in the first days of July 1863, describing his experiences at the Battle of Gettysburg. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: diary
      • Relevant dates: 1863
    9. 4.9
      African American soldiers
      After Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation, some 180,000 African American soldiers fought for the Union cause in the Civil War.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1862–1865
    10. 4.10
      The Thomas Legion
      The "Thomas Legion" of North Carolina Cherokees fought with the Confederate army from 1862 to 1865.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 0
    11. 4.11
      The capture of Plymouth
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1864
    12. 4.12
      Civil War casualties
      Historians estimate that about 620,000 Americans died in the Civil War -- almost as many as have died in all other U.S. wars combined. This article explains why.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1861–1865
  5. 5 A soldier's life
    1. 5.1
      The life of a Civil War soldier
      Article describes the food, equipment, camp life, drill, and discipline of soldiers in the U.S. Civil War. Includes video of a Civil War reenactment.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1861–1865
    2. 5.2
      Small arms in the Civil War
      Article describes the weapons carried by infantry and cavalry soldiers during the U.S. Civil War. Includes video of a Civil War reenactment.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1860–1865
    3. 5.3
      Civil War uniforms
      Article describes the clothing and baggage of northern and southern soldiers during the U.S. Civil War. Includes video of a Civil War reenactment.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1861–1865
    4. 5.4
      Soldiers' food
      Soldiers in the Civil War survived on food that could be preserved and carried long distances -- mainly hardtack, cornmeal, bacon, molasses, and coffee.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1861–1865
    5. 5.5
      Rose O'Neal Greenhow, Confederate spy
      Letter from Rose O'Neal Greenhow to President Jefferson Davis about the preparations taken by Confederate generals to defend Charleston from a Union attack. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: letter
      • Relevant dates: 1863
    6. 5.6
      "My dear little darling"
      Letter from Major General Bryan Grimes to his daughter, describing the conditions in camp. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: letter
      • Relevant dates: 1861–1865
    7. 5.7
      Life in camp
      • Format: letter
      • Relevant dates: 1862
    8. 5.8
      A plea for supplies
      Letter from Lt. Col. S. H. Walkup to North Carolina Governor Zebulon Vance describing the pitiful situation of Confederate troops in the fall of 1862 and asking for supplies. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: letter
      • Relevant dates: 1861–1865
    9. 5.9
      Civil War army hospitals
      A description of medicine, hospitals, and the work of army doctors and nurses in the U.S. Civil War.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1861–1865
    10. 5.10
      Enduring amputation
      Letter from a Civil War soldier to his brother about how he is getting along with his artificial leg. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: letter
      • Relevant dates: 1861–1865
    11. 5.11
      Salisbury prison
      The Confederate military prison at Salisbury, North Carolina, held nearly 9,000 inmates by the fall of 1864, in horrifying conditions.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1861–1865
    12. 5.12
      Vance's proclamation against deserters
      North Carolina Governor Zebulon Vance's proclamation announcing punishments for deserters from the Confederate army and for anyone harboring them, May 1863. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: proclamation
      • Relevant dates: 1863
    13. 5.13
      "I am sorry to tell that some of our brave boys has got killed"
      Letter written from Confederate soldier M. W. Parris to his wife, Jane, during the Civil War. He writes about the fighting and the men who have been killed or wounded. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: letter
      • Relevant dates: 1862
  6. 6 The home front
    1. 6.1
      "My dear I ha'n't forgot you"
      Letter from Elizabeth Watson to her husband, James, a Confederate solider in the Civil War, telling him news from home and how much she misses him. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: letter
      • Relevant dates: 1861
    2. 6.2
      Zebulon Vance
      Biography of Zebulon Vance, who served as North Carolina's governor during most of the Civil War.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1830–1896
    3. 6.3
      Slaves escape to Union lines
      Federal Writers' Project interview with former slave Mary Barbour. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: interview
      • Relevant dates: 1856–1865
    4. 6.4
      The Roanoke Island Freedmen's Colony
      During the Civil War, former slaves freed by the Union army and African Americans who escaped to Union lines were given a village on Roanoke Island.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1862–1865
    5. 6.5
      Paper money in the Civil War
      The Confederate government and the states issued paper money during the Civil War -- a great deal of it, and in many forms. This article includes some examples of North Carolina's paper money, and explains the effect of paper money on prices.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1861–1865
    6. 6.6
      Pleading for corn
      Letter from Emma A. Scoolbred of Haywood County, North Carolina, to Colonel Joseph Cathey, asking him for an ox and corn because food has become scarce. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: letter
      • Relevant dates: 0
    7. 6.7
      A female raid
      Newspaper coverage of a raid on local stores by Confederate soldier's wives in Salisbury, North Carolina on March 18, 1863. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: newspaper (excerpt)
      • Relevant dates: 1863
    8. 6.8
      "No one has anything to sell"
      Diary of Julia Johnson Fisher, a Georgia woman, in March and April 1864, in which she describes the difficulty finding food and other necessities during the Civil War. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: letter
      • Relevant dates: 1864
    9. 6.9
      The Shelton Laurel massacre
      In 1862, Union sympathizers and Confederate deserters from Madison County, North Carolina, raided farms to steal food and supplies. In response, the 64th North Carolina infantry rounded up fifteen men and executed all but two, though only five of the men killed had taken part in the raid.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 0
    10. 6.10
      The Home Guard
      Letter from a commander of North Carolina's Civil War Home Guard to Governor Zebulon Vance, explaining the chaos in the western part of the state and his efforts to keep order and asking the governor for assistance. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: letter
      • Relevant dates: 1864
    11. 6.11
      A civil war at home: Treatment of Unionists
      Excerpt from the memoir of W. B. Younce, an Ashe County man who was drafted into the Confederate army and deserted. He describes the conditions on the home front, particularly the treatment of Unionists. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: book (excerpt)
      • Relevant dates: 1863
    12. 6.12
      The Lowry War
      Many Lumbee Indians in Robeson County resented the demands of the Confederate army. In 1864, members of the Lowry family raided the homes of wealthy slaveholders. The Home Guard executed Allen Lowry and his son William, but another son, Henry Berry Lowry, hid in the woods for years as outlaws, becoming folk heroes.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1864–1872
    13. 6.13
      Life under Union occupation
      Diary of Alice Williamson, a sixteen year-old girl living in Union-occupied Tennessee in 1864 during the Civil War. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: diary
      • Relevant dates: 1864
  7. 7 The war comes to an end, 1864–1865
    1. 7.1
      Timeline of the Civil War, August 1864–May 1865
      Timeline of major events in the last year of the U.S. Civil War.
      • Format: timeline
      • Relevant dates: 1864–1865
    2. 7.2
      North Carolina as a Civil War battlefield, November 1864–May 1865
      Article describes major events and battles in North Carolina during the last year of the Civil War, including Sherman's Carolinas Campaign.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1864–1865
    3. 7.3
      The destruction of the CSS Albemarle
      Report of Lieutenant William Barker Cushing, U.S. Navy, on the destruction of the ironclad CSS Albemarle during the Civil War. Includes historical commentary and background on ironclad ships, including a podcast.
      • Format: letter
      • Relevant dates: 1864
    4. 7.4
      Wilmington, Fort Fisher, and the lifeline of the Confederacy
      By the fall of 1864, Wilimington, North Carolina, protected by Fort Fisher, was the last major Confederate port still open. Ships running the Union blockade brought supplies to the port, which were then carried to armies in Virginia via the Wilmington & Weldon Railroad. When Fort Fisher fell to Union forces in January 1865, Wilmington soon followed.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1864–1865
    5. 7.5
      Lincoln's plans for reconstruction
      In Abraham Lincoln's second inaugural address, with the Civil War nearly over, Lincoln called for reconciliation between North and South.
      • Format: speech
      • Relevant dates: 1865
    6. 7.6
      Stoneman's Raid
      Letter describing the effect of Stoneman's Raid on Caldwell County, North Carolina. In March 1865, at the end of the Civil War, Union General George Stoneman led 6,000 men from Tennessee into western North Carolina and southwestern Virginia, destroying railroads, factories, and warehouses. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: letter
      • Relevant dates: 1865
    7. 7.7
      Sherman's march through North Carolina
      After capturing Atlanta in September 1864, Union General William Sherman led his troops on a "March to the Sea" across Georgia, destroying crops, livestock, supplies, and civilian infrastructure that might possibly support the Confederate war effort. He then turned north into the Carolinas, entering North Carolina in March 1865. This "Carolinas Campaign" ended with the surrender of Confederate General Joseph Johnston to Sherman at Bennett Place on April 26.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1865
    8. 7.8
      "Where Home Used to Be"
      Letter from 16 year-old Janie Smith, whose family home was used as a Confederate hospital during the Battle of Averasboro. She describes the effects of Sherman's March, the battle, and its aftermath. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: letter
      • Relevant dates: 1865
    9. 7.9
      The Battle of Bentonville
      Memoir of a Confederate soldier describing the march to Bentonville and the battle there on March 19, 1865. He describes the desperate state of the Confederate army by the end of the war. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: book (excerpt)
      • Relevant dates: 1865
    10. 7.10
      The assassination of Abraham Lincoln
      President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated April 14, 1865, five days after Lee's surrender at Appomattox and two weeks before Johnston's final surrender at Bennett Place.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1865
    11. 7.11
      Johnston surrenders
      Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston surrendered his army to Union General William T. Sherman at Bennett Place in present-day Durham, North Carolina on April 26, 1865, effectively ending the Civil War.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1865
    12. 7.12
      Mustering out of the Confederate army
      Confederate General Joseph Johnston surrendered his army to William T. Sherman on April 26, 1865, at Bennett Place in present-day Durham, North Carolina. Soldiers under Johnston's command received paroles from Union authorities and were sent home. Includes video of a Civil War reenactment.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1865
    13. 7.13
      Parole signed by the officers and men in Johnston's army
      Text of the parole given to Confederate troops by Union officials after Johnston's surrender at Bennett Place, April 26, 1865.
      • Format: document
      • Relevant dates: 0
    14. 7.14
      "For us the war is ended"
      Order issued by the Union general in command of occupied North Carolina, April 1865, announcing the end of hostilities, promising fair treatment, and setting rules for citizens. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: newspaper
      • Relevant dates: 1865
    15. 7.15
      "Can the very spirit of freedom die out?"
      Diary of Catherine Anne Devereux Edmondston, May 7, 1865, bemoaning the Confederate surrender. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: diary
      • Relevant dates: 1865
    16. 7.16
      New Spring Goods
      Advertisements in a Plymouth, North Carolina, newspaper in May 1865, celebrating the return of peace -- and of consumer goods from the North. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: newspaper
      • Relevant dates: 1865
  8. 8 Freedom
    1. 8.1
      "What we are in justice entitled to"
      Jourdon Anderson, an ex- Tennessee slave, declines his former master's invitation to return as a laborer on his plantation.
      • Format: letter
      • Relevant dates: 1865
    2. 8.2
      History of a scout
      Account of a slave who escaped from a plantation in Jones County, North Carolina, to Union lines during the Civil War and served as a scout for the Union army. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: book (excerpt)
      • Relevant dates: 1862
    3. 8.3
      School for Freed People
      During and after the Civil War, a movement to provide education to freed slaves began to take hold in the South. Despite the resistance of many whites, reformers such as The Reverend Samuel S. Ashley campaigned for the free education of all children, both black and white, in North Carolina.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1865–1877
    4. 8.4
      "The school houses are crowded, and the people are clamorous for more"
      American Freedmen's Union Commission pamphlet explaining the Commission's work in educating formerly enslaved African Americans after the Civil War. Includes historical commentary. Note: This source contains explicit language or content that requires mature discussion.
      • Format: pamphlet
      • Relevant dates: 1865–1870
    5. 8.5
      The Freedmen's Bureau
      Report by Louisa Jacobs on her and her mother Harriet's work to educate freed people in Savannah, Georgia, after the Civil War. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: letter
      • Relevant dates: 1866
    6. 8.6
      The Raleigh Freedmen's Convention
      Declaration of the statewide convention of freedman held in Raleigh, North Carolina, September 29-October 3, 1866. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: declaration
      • Relevant dates: 1866
    7. 8.7
      Reuniting families
      Letters from Freedmen's Bureau agents seeking information on the whereabouts of family members of freed slaves. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: letter
      • Relevant dates: 1865–1870
    8. 8.8
      Making marriages legal
      Marriage certificate issued by the Freedmen's Bureau, making legal the marriage of two former slaves. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: document
      • Relevant dates: 1865–1866
    9. 8.9
      Charges of abuse
      Report of Freedmen's Bureau officials on charges of abuse of former slaves by their former owners in Wilson County, North Carolina, 1865. Includes historical commentary. Note: This source contains explicit language or content that requires mature discussion.
      • Format: report
      • Relevant dates: 1865
  9. 9 Reconstruction
    1. 9.1
      Reconstruction
      Brief history of Reconstruction, including Lincoln's plans, Johnson's presidency, radical reconstruction, military reconstruction, and the end of Reconstruction with the election of 1876.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1865–1876
    2. 9.2
      Timeline of Reconstruction in North Carolina
      Timeline of major events in North Carolina during Union occupation and after the Civil War, 1862–1877.
      • Format: timeline
      • Relevant dates: 1862–1877
    3. 9.3
      Reconstruction in North Carolina
      Brief history of events in North Carolina following the Civil War, 1866–1876.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1865–1877
    4. 9.4
      Johnson's Amnesty Proclamation
      In May 1865, President Andrew Johnson offered amnesty to most former Confederate soldiers, excepting high-ranking officers, some politicians, and the wealthiest Confederates. Original source includes historical commentary.
      • Format: proclamation
      • Relevant dates: 1865
    5. 9.5
      Amnesty letters
      Letters from North Carolinians to President Andrew Johnson asking for amnesty after the Civil War. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: letter
      • Relevant dates: 1865
    6. 9.6
      Black codes, 1866
      Excerpts of legislation passed by the North Carolina General Assembly after the Civil War to limit the freedoms of former slaves. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: legislation
      • Relevant dates: 1866
    7. 9.7
      Catherine Edmondston and Reconstruction
      Excerpts from the diary of Catherine Edmonston of Halifax County, North Carolina, 1865–66, in which she describes her frustration with emancipation and her family's attempts to control its former slaves. Includes historical commentary. Note: This source contains explicit language or content that requires mature discussion.
      • Format: diary (excerpt)
      • Relevant dates: 1865–1866
    8. 9.8
      Amending the U.S. Constitution
      Text of the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth amendments to the U.S. Constitution, passed after the Civil War to abolish slavery and to guarantee the civil rights of African Americans.
      • Format: constitution
      • Relevant dates: 1865–1866
    9. 9.9
      African Americans get the vote in eastern North Carolina
      After the Civil War, African American communities in eastern North Carolina, having already tasted freedom during the war, were ready to fight for political rights.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1864–1872
    10. 9.10
      Military reconstruction
      First Reconstrution Act, passed by Congress over President Johnson's veto in 1867, which established military rule in the former Confederacy until states were formally readmitted to the Union. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: legislation
      • Relevant dates: 1867
    11. 9.11
      The 1868 constitution
      In accordance with the Reconstruction Acts, North Carolina wrote a new constitution in 1868. In addition to abolishing slavery, the new constitution gave more power to the people and to the governor, and called for free public schools, state prisons, and charitable institutions.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1868
    12. 9.12
      John Adams Hyman
      John Adams Hyman, a former slave, became the first black U.S. Representative from North Carolina, serving from 1873 to 1875.
      • Format: biography
      • Relevant dates: 1840–1891
  10. 10 "Redemption" and the end of Reconstruction
    1. 10.1
      Republican rule
      Newspaper editorial praising the accomplishments of the Republican Party in North Carolina during Reconstruction. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: newspaper (excerpt)
      • Relevant dates: 1866–1869
    2. 10.2
      Conservative opposition
      Newspaper editorial attacking the Reconstruction-era Republican majority in North Carolina as incompetent and corrupt. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: newspaper
      • Relevant dates: 1866–1869
    3. 10.3
      The rise of the Ku Klux Klan
      Contemporary description of Klan violence in the Carolinas during Reconstruction, written by African American lawyer John Patterson Green. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: book (excerpt)
      • Relevant dates: 1865–1872
    4. 10.4
      Governor Holden speaks out against the Ku Klux Klan
      Speech by North Carolina Governor William Woods Holden to the General Assembly, December 1869, asking for the power to declare martial law where needed to stop the violence of the Ku Klux Klan. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: letter
      • Relevant dates: 1869
    5. 10.5
      The Kirk-Holden War
      In response to Ku Klux Klan violence during Reconstruction, North Carolina Governor William Woods Holden declared martial law in Alamance and Caswell counties in 1870. The militia, led by former Union Col. George W. Kirk, rounded up Klan leaders in what opponents called the "Kirk-Holden War."
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1869–1871
    6. 10.6
      The murder of "Chicken" Stephens
      Contemporary newspaper account of the murder of State Senator John. W. "Chicken" Stephens of Caswell County, by members of the Ku Klux Klan. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: newspaper (excerpt)
      • Relevant dates: 1870
    7. 10.7
      Address to the Colored People of North Carolina
      1870 broadside urging African Americans to support Governor William Woods Holden, then facing impeachment for his use of the militia to stop Ku Klux Klan violence. Includes historical commentary.
      • Format: poster
      • Relevant dates: 1870
    8. 10.8
      The compromise of 1877
      After the disputed presidential election of 1876, Democrats in Congress agreed to certify a majority vote for Republican Rutherford B. Hayes if Republicans agreed to end military reconstruction.
      • Format: article
      • Relevant dates: 1876–1877
  1. Appendix A. Organization of Civil War Armies
  2. Appendix B. A March in the Ranks Hard-Prest, and the Road Unknown
  3. Appendix C. Memorial Day
  4. Appendix D. Reading Primary Sources: An Introduction for Students
  5. Appendix E. Reading Slave Narratives: The WPA Interviews
  6. Glossary
  7. Index