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abate v.
To lessen or decrease.
abominations n.
Actions or customs causing disgust or hatred.
abortive adj.
Failing to achieve an intended objective; unsuccessful.
abrogate v.
To repeal or cancel.
Abyssinia n.
The former name of Ethiopia.
accommodate v.
To make suitable; adapt.
accompt v.
addicted adj.
1. Strongly disposed or inclined. 2. Devoted or attached.
admonitions n.
affront n.
An offense to one's self-respect; or a physical attack or assault.
ague n.
A malarial fever, marked by successive fits, consisting of a cold, hot, and sweating stage.
alacrity n.
Brisk eagerness; enthusiasm.
alien v.
To transfer the ownership of something to another owner.
allocation n.
Distribution for a specific purpose or to particular people.
amenity n.
Something that contributes to physical comfort.
amicable adj.
Friendly, without serious disagreement.
analogical n.
a comparison between two things usually made to help clarify or explain an idea or argument.
anchorage n.
The state of being anchored, or a place where ships anchor.
anent prep.
About or concerning (Middle English).
angelic adj.
exceptionally beautiful, innocent, or kind
annex v.
To add or attach to something larger or more important; or to incorporate territory into the domain of a city, state, or country.
annihilate v.
To destroy completely.
annihilate v.
to completely destroy
Anno Domini adj.
In the Year of Our Lord, or A.D.
apace adv.
Quickly; swiftly.
appertain v.
Relating to, or concerning.
apprehension n.
apprentice n.
A person who is learning a trade from a skilled employer, such as a blacksmith. The apprentice has signed a contract, agreeing to work for a certain period of time to learn the trade, typically for low wages. The employer has agreed to teach the apprentice skills and provide food, clothing, and shelter.
aquavitae n.
Alcohol, particularly that used as medicine.
artery n.
A major transportation route.
artifice n.
to trick or deceive others. false or fake.
assemble v.
gathering together in one place for a common purpose
assign n.
A person to whom property is transferred.
assizes n.
Legal trials held periodically.
at bay adj.
Unable to advance or escape.
auger n.
A drill used to make holes in wood.
avarice n.
Excessive greed.
bailiwick n.
A legal district under the authority of a bailiff.
bandolier n.
A shoulder-belt worn by soldiers. Originally it helped support a musket (a heavy shoulder gun), and had twelve cases attached, each of which contained a charge for the musket. Later, it was used only for carrying ammunition.
Barbary n.
Archaic term used to refer to the middle and western coastal regions of North Africa -- what is now Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya.
beneficent adj.
Performing acts of kindness or generosity.
bequeath v.
To pass property on to another, usually by will.
Berber n.
A name given by the Arabs to the North African people living in settled or nomadic tribes from Morocco to Egypt.
beseech v.
To beg earnestly for.
betwixt prep.
bight n.
A bend or curve in a shoreline.
blatantly adv.
Conspicuously; obviously.
blight v.
To affect plants with a harmful influence that suddenly blasts, nips, or destroys them, or arrests their growth.
blues n.
Articles of blue clothing. Also, blueberries or bilberries.
bolster n.
A stuffed cushion or large pillow.
breakers n.
Heavy ocean-waves which break violently into foam against a rocky coast or in passing over reefs or shallows.
brigantine n.
A two-masted sailing ship.
broadcloths n.
Fine black cloth, used chiefly for men's garments.
bullock n.
A young bull.
bushel n.
Unit of measurement for dry goods, equal to four pecks or eight gallons.
cable's length n.
A nautical unit of measurement, equal to about 100 fathoms.
canker n.
A chronic, non-healing sore, usually spreading into the surrounding tissue in the body.
canton n.
A small territorial division of a country.
caprice n.
A sudden, unpredictable action or change of mind.
Capuchin n.
A particular branch of Catholic friars that observes vows of poverty and simplicity.
carnage n.
The violent killing of many people.
catarrhs n.
Excessive discharges of mucous from the nose or throat caused by inflammation of the mucous membrane.
Celt n.
A name used to describe the ancient peoples of Western Europe, especially those of Great Britain.
cessation n.
chastisements v.
correction or discipline of one who is at fault.
chattel n.
A piece of property. Sometimes used to refer to a slave or servant.
chintz n.
A colorful cotton fabric imported from India.
choleric n.
Bad-tempered or irritable.
circumspection n.
The quality of being cautious and attentive.
clemency n.
Mercy; leniency.
clime n.
Climate; the general weather conditions in a particular region.
coalesce v.
To grow together or fuse.
comeliness n.
commerce n.
The buying and selling of goods.
commodious adj.
Advantageous or profitable.
commodity n.
A good to be traded or sold.
compensation n.
Money or other goods offered in exchange for something or to make up for the loss of something.
conceal v.
keep close or secret
concession n.
A grant or privilege given by a ruling body.
coney n.
Old-fashioned term for a rabbit.
consecrated adj.
Set apart by a religious leader for public worship. In England, a consecrated building or area has special legal status.
conspicuous adj.
Easily seen; obvious.
constituents n.
Members of a group represented by an elected official.
consummation n.
The completion of an agreement by a pledge or formal contract.
contiguous adj.
Sharing a common border or edge; touching.
contingent adj.
Dependent on some condition.
contrary adj.
convey v.
To act as a medium of transmission or transportation.
conveyance n.
Means of transportation; the transfer of something from one person to another.
cooper n.
A person who makes or repairs barrels, casks, and other wooden containers.
cosmogram n.
A diagram explaining a cosmology, or way of understanding the world as a whole.
cosmology n.
An understanding or representation of the world as a whole and humans' place in it.
countenance n.
Facial expression.
counterpane n.
Quilt or bed-covering.
cousin-german n.
First cousin.
coverlet n.
A quilt or decorative bed-covering.
cowrie n.
A family of large sea snails, having glossy shells that are often used ornamentally.
crepe n.
A light fabric made of silk, cotton, or wool, with a finely crinkled surface.
culminate v.
To reach a final stage or the highest stage of development.
culpable adj.
Deserving blame.
cumber v.
To bother, weigh down, or hinder.
curlew n.
A large wading bird with a curved bill and brown feathers.
cutlery n.
Knives and similar cutting utensils.
debauch v.
To reduce the quality of; to corrupt.
defraud v.
To cheat a person out of what is rightfully his.
defrauding n.
to deprive someone of what is rightfully his or hers.
dependent n.
Someone who relies on another person for financial support. Historically, a dependent was a married woman, children under the age of 21, servants, and slaves.
dexterity n.
Skill in performing physical tasks.
diaper n.
A kind of linen or cotton fabric woven with a simple pattern.
diligent adj.
Carrying out tasks with care, persistence, and continuous effort.
diminished adj.
Reduced in size, strength, or importance.
diminutive adj.
Extremely small in size; tiny.
disbursed v.
Paid out.
disingenuity n.
unfair treatment or underhand dealing; or more commonly used today - disingenuous
disposition n.
One's usual mood or temperament.
dissident adj.
Having beliefs that disagree with those of the majority.
distemper n.
Disease or ill health. Also refers to a specific viral disease afflicting horses.
distiller n.
A person who makes alcoholic liquors by the process of distillation.
divers adj.
Archaic form of diverse meaning several or of different types.
docile adj.
Ready and willing to receive instruction; submissive.
dominion n.
Territory or area under control; property under one's control.
dour adj.
Extremely serious and stern.
dowry n.
Property brought by a woman to her marriage.
draconian adj.
Very harsh or severe.
draught n.
image or representation
druggets n.
Pieces of fabric made from wool, or wool mixed with silk or linen, used for making clothing.
ducat n.
A gold coin formerly used in various parts of Europe.
duly adj.
in a way that reflects a person's duty or obligation
East Lothian n.
An area in the southeast of Scotland, near the city of Edinburgh.
ecclesiastical adj.
Associated with the church.
edict n.
A formal command.
effluvia n.
Foul-smelling exhalations or odors.
ell n.
An archaic unit of measure equal to 45 inches.
Elongation n.
the distance and angle of a planet or star from the sun.
emancipation n.
The process of freeing someone from slavery or oppression.
embellishment n.
adding to, or decorating, something to make it more attractive
embody v.
To collect into a whole.
emergent adj.
Urgent; needing immediate action.
emetic n.
Medicine that causes vomiting.
emigrate v.
To leave one country or region and settle in another.
encroach v.
To gradually and stealthily take another's possessions or rights.
encumbered adj.
Obstructed, burdened, or weighed down.
endeavor v.
try hard to achieve something
endowments n.
Gifts, powers, capacities, or other advantages a person is given by nature or fortune.
engrafted v.
Incorporated into an existing system.
enmity n.
Deep-seated hostility; hatred.
ensue v.
To happen afterward, usually as a direct result.
entail n.
to impose upon someone; to make a person permanently in some type of emotional or physical state.
entreat v.
To ask earnestly or to beg someone for something.
ephemeris n.
a table or data that shows the positions of a planet or star throughout the year.
erosion n.
Natural processes, including weathering, dissolution, abrasion, corrosion, and transportation, by which material is worn away from the earth's surface.
erratic adj.
Unpredictable; lacking consistency.
estate n.
All the property and money owned by a particular person
esteem n.
to regard as valuable, or think highly of a person or thing.
etymology n.
The study of the origin of words and of the way their meaning has changed over time.
exalted adj.
of high rank; powerful
exodus n.
The departure of a large number of people.
expedient adj.
Suitable to meet a certain purpose; convenient.
factionalism n.
A situation characterized by conflict between groups.
faggot n.
A bundle of sticks, twigs, or branches bound together.
fathom n.
A unit of length equal to 6 feet, used especially for measuring the depth of water. As a verb, to understand.
felicity n.
Something that causes happiness.
fidelity n.
Faithfulness to duties or obligations; loyalty.
firmament n.
the heaven or the sky
flint n.
A hard gray rock consisting of nearly pure silica, or a piece of this rock used to produce a fire-igniting spark.
flux n.
An abnormal discharge of blood or other matter from the body.
fodder n.
Food for livestock.
folly n.
a foolish act or deed
formulate v.
To put into words.
fortification n.
A work constructed to defend against attack.
Fortitude n.
fowling piece n.
A light gun for shooting fowl.
franchise n.
A privilege or right granted by a government.
freight n.
The charges paid for transporting cargo.
frieze n.
A heavy woolen cloth that is rough on one side.
froe n.
A cleaving tool with a wedge-shaped blade, used for splitting wood.
froes n.
Cleaving tools having their handles at right angles to their blades for splitting cask staves and shingles from the block, or steel wedges for splitting logs.
frontier n.
The distant edge of settled territory. Beyond this point, there were few white settlements.
Gaelic n.
The native language of the Celtic Highlanders of Scotland.
galangal n.
A root resembling ginger with a piney, citrusy aroma, today used mainly in Southeast Asian cuisines.
gallows n.
a place for executing prisoners, usually by hanging.
garrison n.
A military fortress.
garters n.
Ties used to hold up stockings.
gay adj.
lighthearted, care-free, characterized by cheerfulness and pleasure.
genealogist n.
A person who studies family ancestries and histories.
genteel adj.
Characteristic of the upper class; elegant or graceful in manner.
gimlet n.
A small tool for boring holes.
grafting v.
Propagating by inserting a shoot from one plant into a slit cut into another.
gratuity n.
Gift or present.
gravity n.
A dignified or serious manner.
gridiron n.
A grill used for cooking food over a fire.
grindstone n.
A disc of thick stone revolving on an axle, and used for grinding, sharpening, or polishing.
grubbing hoe n.
A heavy tool with a long handle and a thin, flat blade, used for digging up roots and stumps.
guile n.
Deceit; trickery.
gum n.
A sticky or glutinous substance obtained from trees and having various industrial uses; also, any tree that exudes these substances.
haberdashers-wares n.
Items sold by dealers of men's clothing, including hats, ties, and shirts.
habiliments n.
Clothing or equipment.
hand-bill n.
A hook-bladed tool used for clearing brush.
harrowed adj.
Broken up by a harrow -- an agricultural tool with sharp teeth used to even out ground after it has been plowed.
haste n.
very quickly
hearsay n.
Information received by word of mouth; rumor.
heathen n.
Derogatory term used to describe a member of a people that does not acknowledge the God of a particular religion (usually Judaism, Christianity, or Islam.)
hegira n.
The flight of Muhammad (the prophet through whom Islam was established) from Mecca to Medina in 622 C.E. The Muslim calendar uses this date as its basis.
heinous adj.
Especially wicked; atrocious.
herbaceous adj.
Relating to or characteristic of an herb as distinguished from a woody plant; green and leaflike in appearance or texture.
herbage n.
Herbaceous plants, especially grass used for grazing.
hereditament n.
Property that can be inherited.
hierarchy n.
A system of authority in which officials are organized by rank.
hither adv.
To or toward this place.
hitherto adv.
Until now.
husbandry n.
Cultivation and breeding of crops and livestock.
hypocrisy n.
when someone claims to have high moral standards, but their actions do not match with what they claim.
hypocrites n.
People who claims to have moral standards or beliefs, but their actions are different from what they profess.
idolatry n.
Worship of idols, or religious devotion to something outside the bounds of accepted worship.
ill n.
wicked, evil [more]
imposition n.
an unfair or resented demand or burden
impound v.
To seize and hold in custody of the law.
imprimis adv.
Old-fashioned term meaning "In the first place," often used before the first in a list of items.
incommodious adj.
Troublesome, inconvenient, annoying.
inconstancy n.
The state of being changeable and unpredictable.
incorporated v.
Granted a charter by the state and recognized as a legal entity with its own elected officials.
indifferent adj.
Of things: neither good nor bad; showing little difference or variation; or inferior, not particularly good. Of people: having no strong feeling or preference. Also (archaically) used as an adverb.
indigenous adj.
Native, or belonging naturally to a particular region.
indignation n.
anger as a response to unfair treatment
indolence n.
Laziness; one who is indolent is lazy.
indulgent adj.
showing a tendency to be generous or overly kind
indulgent adj.
showing a tendency to be generous or overly kind
industriously adv.
skillfully and intelligently
infidelity n.
Lack of religious faith.
infirm adj.
Feeble; physically weak or unhealthy.
infirmities n.
weaknesses or inabilities
ingot n.
A mass of metal, usually in a brick shape.
ink-powder n.
The powdered ingredients of ink.
insatiable adj.
Incapable of being satisfied.
insurrection n.
An uprising against authority.
intangible adj.
Incapable of being defined; vague.
integral adj.
Essential for completeness.
intensification n.
The process of making more extreme or intense. Agricultural intensification, for example, may involve more extensive labor, irrigation, or fertilization, or shorter inactive periods between harvest and planting.
intermittent adj.
Stopping and starting; not continuous.
Intolerable Acts n.
Acts passed by the British Parliament in 1774 to punish the American colonies for their rebellion against British rule.
inviolable adj.
Incapable of being violated or corrupted.
ironmonger n.
One who sells ironware or hardware.
irrevocable adj.
Impossible to retract or withdraw.
jeer v.
to speak negatively of, or to mock, a person or thing.
jetty n.
A protective structure of stone or concrete that extends from the shoreline into the water to prevent a beach from washing away.
joiner n.
Craftsman whose occupation it is to construct things by joining pieces of wood; workers in wood who do lighter and more ornamental work than that of carpenters.
juchart n.
In Germany and Switzerland, a unit of measuring land area, roughly equivalent to 0.89 acres.
jurisdiction n.
Authority or control.
kersey n.
A piece of coarse narrow cloth, woven from long wool and usually ribbed.
lade v.
To load with cargo.
lamentation n.
A vocal cry of sorrow or grief.
larboard n.
The side of a ship which is to the left hand of a person looking from the stern towards the bows. Opposed to "starboard."
lavish adj.
Rich, elaborate, or luxurious.
league n.
A measure of distance used in traveling, varying in different countries, but usually estimated at about 3 miles.
lee n.
Shelter from the wind provided by a neighboring object, such as a land formation.
legacy n.
Something handed down from an ancestor or predecessor.
levee n.
A mound or bank created to prevent the flooding of a river.
libation n.
The pouring of wine or another liquid as a religious offering.
lignum vitae n.
The wood of a Guaiacum tree.
linseed n.
The seed of the flax plant, which produces an oil used in food preparation. Flax fibers are used to make linen cloth.
looking glass n.
A mirror.
lovefeast n.
A traditional Moravian religious service that includes singing, a talk, and the sharing of a simple meal.
lucid adj.
Clear; easy to understand.
luster n.
a shine or glow
lusty adj.
Heatlhy and strong; vigorous.
magistrate n.
A civil officer who administers the law within a limited jurisdiction.
magnitude n.
Greatness in size or scope.
mancala n.
A type of board game originating in Africa, played by two players and using a board with rows of pits in which seeds or stones are placed. The object is to capture the opponent's pieces.
manor n.
The estate of a lord.
marl n.
A deposit of earth, typically loose and consisting mainly of clay and calcium carbonate.
mast n.
A tall pole that rises from the deck of a ship to support the sails and rigging. Also refers to the pieces of timber used for making ships' masts.
matrilineal adj.
Based on determining descent through the maternal line.
meads n.
meager adj.
Slight, deficient.
mean low water n.
The average level of low tide for a particular area.
megafauna n.
Large or relatively large animals.
melancholy adj.
Gloomy; sad.
menace v.
To threaten or present a danger to.
menhaden n.
A marine fish from the family Clupeidae.
merchant n.
A person involved in trade, either buying or selling goods that will then be sold to customers.
middling adj.
Middle-class. Term used before "class" was a recognized concept.
militia n.
An army composed of citizen soldiers rather than professional soldiers.
millet n.
A group of cereal crops or grains grown around the world for food and fodder.
millstone n.
Either of a pair of circular stones which grind corn by the rotation of the upper stone on the lower one.
minutely adv.
With attention to the smallest details.
minutest adj.
extremely small
mired adj.
stuck in the mud
mole n.
An area of water bounded by a large stone structure, usually forming a harbor or port.
moored v.
Of a ship, secured in a particular place by means of chains, ropes, or cables fastened to the shore or to anchors.
moralist n.
A person who is concerned with the principles of proper behavior.
mortal adj.
Deadly; fatal.
mullet n.
A freshwater or coastal fish from the family Mugilidae.
multitudes n.
large numbers of people
municipal adj.
Having to do with a city or town, especially with its government.
mutining n.
Rebelling; rising in revolt against authority.
nativity n.
natural increase n.
Population growth due to new births.
negligence n.
Neglect; failure to pay proper attention.
nimble n.
quick and graceful
nominal adj.
Insignificant or small; a token.
northerly adj.
Situated in or towards the north; northern.
oblation n.
A religious sacrifice.
obligated adj.
Bound or compelled by a legal, social, or moral tie.
obliterate v.
To destroy completely.
obscurity n.
The state of being unknown.
obstinately adv.
odious adj.
Deserving or causing hatred.
ominous adj.
Threatening; suggesting bad developments in the future.
ooze n.
Muddy sediment on the ocean floor, consisting of the remains of microscopic sea animals.
opulence n.
oratory n.
A small building for religious worship.
osnaburgs n.
Articles of coarse linen cloth originally made in Osnabrück, Germany, used for making furnishings, sacks, tents, or rough hard-wearing clothing, such as that worn by slaves.
ostensible adj.
Outwardly appearing as actual, but not necessarily so.
oust v.
To expel or remove from a position.
palatine adj.
Having a ruler with power and privileges normally belonging only to the king. May also refer to the ruler himself.
palisade n.
A walled enclosure built around a village or town; a stockade.
pantheon n.
A group of all the gods of a particular culture.
Parallax n.
The appearance that an object has changed position or direction when viewed from two different positions. For example, a star appears to be in a different place in the sky depending on where a person stands.
paramour n.
The object of a person's love.
partake v.
To have a share or portion.
pasture n.
a piece of land covered in grass where animals, such as cows or horses, are kept.
patriarch n.
The male head of a household.
patrilineal adj.
Based on the relationship to the father or the descent through the male line.
pauper n.
A very poor person.
penniworth n.
Value for money; an item of merchandise considered in terms of its monetary worth.
penury n.
Extreme poverty.
per annum adv.
Every year.
perennial adj.
Lasting through successive years; perpetual.
pestilential adj.
Related to epidemic disease, especially bubonic plague.
philosophical adj.
Having to do with one's set of beliefs, ideas, or values.
piecemeal adv.
One piece at a time.
piercer n.
A tool for starting holes in wood or metal.
pimento n.
A heart-shaped red sweet pepper, usually 3 to 4 inches long and 2 to 3 inches wide.
pinion v.
To bind or shackle.
pious adj.
Showing reverence for a deity or religion.
plunder v.
To steal by use of force, especially during war.
plurality n.
A number consisting of two or more.
ply v.
To sail over regularly.
politick adj.
seeming sensible under the circumstances
polity n.
An organized society with a specific form of government.
portmanteau n.
A large leather suitcase for traveling.
precedent n.
A custom or convention established by long practice.
precept n.
A set of rules governing moral behavior.
precipitate v.
To cause or bring about, especially suddenly.
precisely adv.
predict v.
To say that a specific thing will happen in the future.
prejudicial adj.
harmful to someone or something
preposterously adv.
unnatural, irrational, or absurd.
prerogative n.
Exclusive right to command or rule.
presentment n.
prevalence n.
Frequency; predominance.
prevalent adj.
Widespread or common.
principality n.
A territory or state ruled by a prince.
privateer n.
As a noun, a privately owned and manned warship authorized by a government to attack the commercial ships of an enemy nation; or a member of the crew of such a ship. As a verb, to sail as a privateer.
privy adj.
Having knowledge of something private or secret.
procure v.
To obtain.
prodigal n.
A person who spends money extravagantly and wastefully.
profess v.
To declare belief in or loyalty to.
prohibition n.
The enactment of a law that forbids.
prominence n.
The state of being well-known, important, or distinctive.
propagation n.
The process of causing something to grow or multiply.
provident adj.
Showing foresight.
provincial adj.
Belonging to a province -- a region governed as a unit of a country.
proviso n.
A condition or stipulation.
prowess n.
Superior skill or ability; or courage in battle.
punctual n.
doing something at the agreed upon time; to be on time
purport n.
Meaning or purpose.
pursuant adv.
In accordance with; following (or "pursuing") a set of rules or guidelines.
quagmire n.
Wet, boggy land, usually too soft to support the weight of a person walking.
quarters n.
1. A place of lodging. 2. A region or locality. 3. Something that has been divided into four parts.
quitrent n.
A kind of rent or real estate tax paid to landholders under a feudal system.
rallery n.
Mocking or teasing
ramillie wig n.
A wig with a long braid in the back, tied with a bow at the top and bottom.
rampant adj.
Unrestrained; happening frequently.
rapacious adj.
Aggressively greedy.
rapeseed n.
The seed of the rape plant, a relative of the mustard plant. Rapeseeds produce a vegetable oil used in cooking, now commonly called canola oil.
rapine n.
Violent theft.
ratification n.
Formal approval.
recompense n.
Payment made to compensate for damage or loss.
reconcile v.
To bring into agreement or make consistent.
reconciled v.
bring in agreement or to exist in harmony
redoubt n.
A kind of fort.
Reformed cantons n.
Regions of Switzerland whose official religion was the Reformed Protestant church of Ulrich Zwingli.
Reformed cantons n.
Regions of Switzerland whose official religion was the Reformed Protestant church of Ulrich Zwingli.
Reformed cantons n.
Regions of Switzerland whose official religion was the Reformed Protestant church of Ulrich Zwingli.
refractory adj.
stubborn or rebellious
relinquish v.
To give up control of something.
rendezvous v.
To meet, usually by appointment. As a noun, a meeting.
repository n.
A storehouse; an abundant supply.
repugnant adj.
Opposed or contradictory.
repulse v.
To drive back or repel.
requisite adj.
reverence n.
A feeling of profound respect and awe.
rickets n.
A disease caused by vitamin D deficiency, especially incident to children, characterized by softening of the bones, especially of the spine, and consequent distortion, bow-legs, and emaciation.
roiling v.
rosin n.
A solid substance obtained as a residue after the distillation of turpentine oil from crude turpentine, used in making varnishes, soaps, adhesives, and various other products.
royal standard n.
The flag flown when a member of the British royal family is present.
rushes n.
Marsh-growing or waterside plants having cylindrical and usually hollow stems.
sagacious n.
having or showing good judgement
salt pan n.
A shallow depression near the sea used in salt-making. Sea water flows into the depression and then evaporates, leaving behind a salt deposit.
salt-works n.
A place where salt is made.
sapling n.
A young tree.
savvy adj.
Well-informed and quick-witted.
scaffold n.
a raised wooden platform
scarification n.
The process of intentionally making cuts or scratches in the skin.
scow n.
A large flat-bottomed boat with square ends.
scurvy n.
A disease cause by a deficiency of vitamin C characterized by bleeding gums, loose teeth, and improperly-healing wounds.
scythe n.
A tool consisting of a long curved blade and a handle, used to cut grass, grain, or other crops.
sect n.
A religious group, especially one that has separated from a larger denomination.
secular n.
Not having to do with religion or spiritual beliefs.
sedition n.
Action or speech promoting rebellion.
self-sustaining adj.
Capable of supporting oneself without outside assistance.
Seraphim n.
an angel
shoals n.
Shallow places, including sand-banks and sand-bars.
shoat n.
A young pig.
sill n.
A horizontal timber that holds the upright part of a frame.
situated adj.
slay v.
To kill violently.
sloop n.
A fore-and-aft-rigged sailing ship with a single mast.
smite v.
hit or strike
solemnity n.
the state of being serious
Solemnized v.
to make serous or grave
solicit v.
To ask for something, usually by formal request.
sorghum n.
A genus of grasses raised for grain, cultivated in warm regions.
spacious adj.
Large; roomy.
spoils n.
Goods taken unlawfully, by theft or in war.
spring tide n.
The opposite of neap tide, when the high-water level is at its highest. Spring tide occurs shortly after the new and full moon.
spruceness n.
the qualities of being neat, trim, tidy.
spur v.
To cause or motivate.
staple n.
A primary item of trade, or an important commodity for a region.
starboard n.
The right-hand side of a ship, as distinguished from the larboard or port side.
staves n.
Rods, bars, or poles.
steppelike adj.
Similar to a steppe -- a vast, level plain, usually with no trees.
sticcado n.
A musical instrument similar to a xylophone.
stillborn adj.
Failing from the very beginning.
subjective adj.
Dependent on personal perspective and affected by individual bias.
subordinance n.
Lower rank or secondary importance.
subsidy n.
Financial contribution to support an activity or enterprise.
subsistence n.
The means of supporting life, usually referring to food and other basic commodities.
suction dredge n.
A barge or boat equipped with a powerful sucking tube, similar to a vacuum cleaner, used to remove material from a channel or riverbed.
sulky n.
A light carriage with two wheels and one seat.
sundry adj.
Various; miscellaneous.
superintendent n.
An officer who has chief oversight or control.
sustenance n.
Something (usually food) that maintains life.
syllabub n.
A traditional British dessert, popular from the 1500s to the 1800s, made from curdled milk or cream and sweetened with sugar.
sylvan adj.
Associated with or related to the woods or forest.
tallow n.
Substance made from animal fat, used in making candles and soap, and for dressing leather.
tanyard n.
A place where leather is tanned.
tar kiln n.
A device used to produce tar by melting it out of dead pine trees. A tar kiln consisted of a pit dug in the ground with a barrel in it to collect the tar. The pit was filled with resinous wood (lightwood) and covered with dirt. When the lightwood was set on fire, the tar ran out of the wood into the barrel.
teal n.
Small fresh-water fowl, the smallest of the ducks.
tears n.
Teardrops. Also, gums that ooze from trees in teardrop-shaped beads that become solid or resinous.
tendance n.
looking after, caring for, a person who is sick,
tenement n.
Property held by one person leasing it from another.
tenet n.
A belief, opinion, or principle held to be true by an organization or person.
terra incognita n.
Unknown or unexplored territory.
thither adv.
There; in that direction.
thresh v.
To separate the edible part of a grain from its hull.
tillage n.
The act of plowing or cultivating land.
tin ware n.
Plates, cups, pots, and other household items made of tin.
transmigration n.
The passing of the soul into another body after death.
travail n.
The labor and pain of child-birth.
treatise n.
A formal, in-depth piece of writing about a subject.
trending v.
Running or inclining in a certain direction.
trepan v.
To saw a hole in the skull with a surgical saw.
tributary state n.
A state subordinate to a more powerful neighboring state. The tributary state sent a regular gift or tribute to the superior state as a token of submission.
truncheon n.
A short, thick stick carried as a weapon.
turner n.
A person who makes objects of wood, metal, or bone by turning them on a lathe.
typhoid fever n.
A highly infectious bacterial disease usually transmitted by contaminated food and drink. Typhoid fever is characterized by fever, headache, coughing, and intestinal inflammation.
unaffected n.
free of disguise; to be honest and sincere
unanimous adj.
fully in agreement.
uncouth adj.
Lacking good manners, refinement, or grace.
under arms adj.
Ready for battle.
unpalatable adj.
unpleasant to the taste.
valance n.
A short piece of drapery, hung across the top of a window or around the top edge of a canopy bed.
vale n.
A valley.
vassal king n.
A less-important king representing a superior king.
vaunt v.
To speak boastfully of.
veil n.
a thing, such as a piece of clothe, that disguises or obscures something
verdure n.
The fresh green color characteristic of lush vegetation.
verity n.
victual v.
To supply oneself with provisions. As a noun, articles of food or provisions.
victuals n.
Articles of food.
vile adj.
morally bad or wicked
virtuous n.
having or showing high moral standards or goodness
viz adv.
Abbrevation meaning namely or specifically.
voracious adj.
Having a huge appetite; greedy; ravenous.
waistcoat n.
A men's garment, similar to a vest, worn under a jacket or other outer garment.
wattling n.
Interwoven branches.
wedge n.
A piece of metal tapering to a thin edge used for splitting wood or rocks, for raising heavy bodies, and for being driven into a space between objects for tightening.
wheelwright n.
Person who makes or repairs wheels.
widgeon n.
Wild, freshwater duck, between the teal and the mallard in size.
withal prep.
woe adj.
condemning or cursing a person or thing.
worsted n.
Twisted yarn or thread made from combed wool fibers, used for weaving and knitting.
yawl n.
A small boat, often used as a scout or messenger boat for a larger ship.
yellow fever n.
A tropical disease caused by a mosquito-borne virus, causing fever and usually death.
zealous adj.
Full of enthusiasm or passion.