4 School desegregation
In the early 1950s, a series of lawsuits reached federal courts challenging the 1890 ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson that public accomodations for people of different races could be separate but equal. Civil rights groups argued that racially segregated schools were inherently unequal, and in 1954, the Supreme Court agreed. Brown v. Board of Education ordered the end of separate black and white schools, but making integration a reality took years of struggle and protest, and debates over school integration continue to this day.
In this chapter we’ll explore the process of school desegregation from the 1950s through the 1970s — not only the politics and policy but the impact that change had on students, parents, and teachers.
- 4.1Brown v. Board of Education and school desegregation
- 4.2Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
- 4.3Billy Graham and civil rights
- 4.4The Little Rock Nine
- 4.5Desegregation pioneers
- 4.6Youth protest: JoAnne Peerman
- 4.7A teacher's protest: William Culp
- 4.8Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education
- 4.9The impact of busing in Charlotte
- 4.10Opposition to busing
- 4.11Perspectives on school desegregation: Fran Jackson
- 4.12Perspectives on school desegregation: Harriet Love