K–12 teaching and learning · from the UNC School of Education

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Learning outcomes

Students will:

  • discuss repeated addition as being the same as multiplication.
  • model repeated addition as well as multiplication using math manipulatives such as (two colored counters, buttons, teddy bear counters etc.)
  • write a multiplication fact.
  • illustrate a multiplication fact and write a math story.
  • use computers with software Kid Pix or Hyperstudio to produce the final lesson product.

Teacher planning

Time required for lesson

1 hour


  • One Hundred Hungry Ants by Elinor J. Pinczes
  • chalkboard or chart
  • math manipulatives such as two colored counters, buttons, teddy bear counters, etc.
  • paper (drawing and notebook)
  • pencil
  • markers, crayons or colored pencils

Technology resources

Computers with software Kid Pix or Hyperstudio.


  • Discussion of repeated addition being the same as multiplication.
  • Prior knowledge or discussion of how to write a multiplication fact.
  • Prior lessons in Kid Pix or Hyperstudio


  1. The teacher will read aloud One Hundred Hungry Ants by Elinor J. Pinczes.
  2. The teacher will direct the students to “think” about the groups of ants that marched (ex: 2 groups of 50, 4 groups of 25). The teacher will show or demonstrate on the chalkboard that 50 + 50 = 100 and that 25 + 25 + 25 + 25 = 100. The teacher will explain that this is called repeated addition. The teacher will also write 2X50=100 and 4X25=100 on the board. The teacher will explain that repeated addition and multiplication are the same.
  3. The teacher will pass out math manipulatives of his/her choice for example two colored counters. Each student should have at least 10.
  4. The teacher will direct the students to model or show repeated addition (ex: two groups of five).
  5. The teacher will write the multiplication equation 5 x 2 = 10 on the board. The students will model or show the equation with their manipulatives.
  6. The teacher will pass out a sheet of drawing paper and notebook paper to each child. The teacher will direct the students to write the equation 5 x 2 = 10 on their drawing paper.
  7. The student will illustrate the math equation 5 x 2 = 10 (ex: draw 2 baskets of five apples).
  8. The teacher will circulate and check to see that each student has successfully illustrated the math equation 5 x 2 = 10.
  9. The teacher will then direct each student to write a brief story to tell about their math equation and drawing.
  10. After all math stories are complete each student will be directed to create their story and illustration on Kid Pix or Hyperstudio. This should be the final lesson product. This should also serve as an assessment for understanding.


  • Oral questions throughout the lesson.
    • If I have 2 groups of five counters how many counters do I have?
    • If I have 5 groups of two counters how many counters will I have?
    • Are five groups of two and two groups of five equal?
    • If I write 2 x 5 = 10 is that the same as two groups of five equals ten? Or if I write 5 x 2 = 10 is that the same five groups of two equals ten?
  • Observations of students as they work.
  • Questioning students as they work and at the completion of their work.
  • The final lesson product.

Rubric for final lesson product

  • 4 = Expresses 5 x 2 in at least two ways.For example 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 10 or 5 + 5 = 10. Also, a 2 x 5 array or a 5 x 2 array.
  • 3 = Expresses 5 x 2 one way.
  • 2 = Does computation only; no pictures, words or explanation.
  • 1 = Attempts assignment but incorrect response.
  • 0 = Assignment not attempted

Supplemental information

Other picture books about this topic include:


Allowing students to explore math in a hands on way using math manipulatives gives them the opportunity to experience math. The exploration of math is a wonderful way to give students something to write about. Writing about math is a excellent way for the teacher to assess understanding.

  • Common Core State Standards
    • Mathematics (2010)
      • Grade 3

        • Operations & Algebraic Thinking
          • 3.OAT.1Interpret products of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 5 × 7 as the total number of objects in 5 groups of 7 objects each. For example, describe a context in which a total number of objects can be expressed as 5 × 7.

North Carolina curriculum alignment

Mathematics (2004)

Grade 3

  • Goal 1: Number and Operations - The learner will model, identify, and compute with whole numbers through 9,999.
    • Objective 1.03: Develop fluency with multiplication from 1x1 to 12x12 and division up to two-digit by one-digit numbers using:
      • Strategies for multiplying and dividing numbers.
      • Estimation of products and quotients in appropriate situations.
      • Relationships between operations.