K-12 Teaching and Learning From the UNC School of Education

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Learning outcomes

After this lesson the students will learn and improve manipulative skills of throwing a ball underhand while applying three critical elements of this throw: step with opposite foot, swing a throwing arm, and point a target. Students will practice underhand throwing with different classmates.

Teacher planning

Time required for lesson

1 class period

Materials/resources

  • tape player
  • prerecorded warm-up music for locomotor movement
  • variety of small balls (as many as partner pairs)
  • tennis deck rings (or hoops) (as many as balls)
  • about 5 or 6 six-inch foam balls
  • clipboard
  • pencil

Pre-activities

The day schedule, SCOS, lesson objectives, skills to be practiced, safety rules, cognitive information, rubrics, homework assignment, and vocabulary of the unit are posted on the boards in front of the students (ball, roll, throw, opposite, threw, catch caught, step, swing, target).

Activities

  • The students enter the gym and immediately start warm-up routine known since the beginning of the year with the tunes of prerecorded music. Students move in a single line around the gym. The warm-up routine includes about 5 minutes of walking and higher intensity movement in 20:40 second intervals using combinations such as walking:jogging, walking:galloping backwards, walking:skipping backwards, walking:sliding and turning around every 4 steps, and walking:hopping. Students finish by walking to the assigned number (in alphabetical order, in 4 lines with 8 students per line) for lesson introduction. This allows for quick check of attendance and preparation for class (attire) during the introductory segment of each lesson. When child comes unprepared numerous times, pre-printed parent note is sent to parents with the student.
  • The new lesson is briefly introduced: underhand throwing and working cooperatively with different classmates. Underhand throw is demonstrated with the rubric cues: swing, step (opposite foot), and point (the target while releasing a ball). This does not take more than 4 minutes.
  • After a lesson introduction, while students unite with their PE partners, teacher spreads out tennis deck rings or hoops in line in the middle of the gym. Different ball is placed on each ring/hoop. Balls are small for easy gripping. Partners stand up facing each other besides the other pairs of partners with a ball between them.
  • Teacher introduces pattern to switch partners every couple of minute, so students can work with partners of different ability levels. Partners are standing facing each other. Students need to raise RIGHT hand (good luck!) and point the person standing on the right side of them. If there is nobody on the right side, they need to point person in front of them. This refers to the last person on the right end of each line. The pointed spot is going to be the place for the next round of practice for pointing student. Students slide after the signal to the right couple of times until this procedure is understood by all students. (about 3 minutes)
  • All students need to face a teacher. Teacher leads underhand throwing technique: A- all students repeat the cues – swing(1), step(2), point(3). B- All students go through the motion of underhand throw repeating cues. Teacher makes sure student use opposition of arm and leg. (about 3-5 minutes)
  • Students need to face partner. They play “rock, paper, scissors, shoot” and who wins picks the ball up, partners move apart and practice underhand throwing repeating cues out loud. Teacher circulates, gives students individual feedback, and marks on a rubric the names of students who have mastered all 3 critical elements. The critical elements are swing, step, and point.
  • After a minute or so, teacher whistles, students approach the ring/hoop, place a ball down and gives one compliment about partner’s performance before sliding to the right to the next ball following teacher’s directions: “Point to the right, slide, play (rock-paper), throw.” This practice should take about 12 minutes.
  • Students play last time “rock, paper” and winner takes ball to designated container, second partner puts away ring/hoop. Students form teams of 5 and sit down in team circle.
  • Students will be using underhand throwing in a game called “Team Juggling.” Students will pass a ball in a circle following the rules:
    • Only underhand throwing allowed.
    • Each person cannot throw to a student standing besides him/her.
    • Receiver cannot throw a ball to a person from whom he/she just received a ball.
    • Each person will throw only once in each sequence.
    • Do not throw a ball if there is no eye contact with receiver.
    • After students established a pattern, add second and then third ball.

    Teacher circulates and reminds students the throwing cues.

  • After about 15 minutes, the students sit down for class closing procedure again on their assigned number:
    1. reach toward their toes in pike position
    2. lesson summary: review class assignment, underhand throwing rubric, new vocabulary used in class
    3. homework assignment: underhand throwing and catching a ball every day
    4. locating belongings (jackets, nametags, etc.)
    5. self assessment on the High Five board located at the exit door
    6. Super Star slip pick-up
  • Assessment

    In third grade, I use an underhand throwing rubric that is divided into 3 areas:

    1. for children who demonstrate only one critical element
    2. two critical elements
    3. three critical elements

    Teacher hands out clothespins during the class for excellent performance and effort, which are exchanged for PE Star slips when leaving the class. The pins have a sign that says PE Super Star and are attached to students’ pant pocket and side edge of shirts.

    One student is nominated to be a Sunshine of the Month for super preparation for class, attitude, participation, etc. during the closing segment of a class. The Sunshine of the Month writes his or her name on a ray of a big sun drawn on a poster.

    While leaving the gym, students assess their performance by giving themselves either high five (green hand), medium five (yellow hand) or low five (red hand) located on the wall at the door.

    Supplemental information

    Modifications

    Adaptation during the warm-up for the students with limited mobility: students perform warm-up at their pace on the inside circle.

    When there is uneven number of students for partner practice, the student without a partner is first on the right in line and is throwing a ball to the wall and catching for one rotation.

    Comments

    All PE routines, procedures, and signals should be taught during the first weeks of the school year, so students know what to expect in each class and transitions are taking very small amount of time.

    If a teacher doesn’t have established procedures, he/she may run out of time and will not be able to implement all the components of this lesson. In this case, he/she could skip the game “Team Juggling.”

  • North Carolina Essential Standards
    • Healthful Living (2010)
      • Motor Skills Development

        • 1.MS.1 Apply competent motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities. 1.MS.1.1 Execute recognizable forms of all eight basic locomotor skills in different pathways, levels, or directions. 1.MS.1.2 Use recognizable forms...
        • 2.MS.1 Apply competent motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities. 2.MS.1.1 Execute combinations of locomotor skills in different pathways, levels, or directions. 2.MS.1.2 Execute a variety of manipulative skills...
        • 3.MS.1 Apply competent motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities. 3.MS.1.1 Execute combinations of simple locomotor skills and manipulative skills. 3.MS.1.2 Apply basic manipulative skills while moving/traveling....

North Carolina curriculum alignment

Healthful Living Education (2006)

Grade 1

  • Goal 6: The learner will demonstrate competency in a variety of movement forms and proficiency in a few to gain competence towards lifetime physical activities (NASPE Standard 1).
    • Objective 6.02: Demonstrate the emerging skills for throwing, catching, striking.
  • Goal 10: Exhibits responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and others at the same time as values physical activity for health, enjoyment, challenge, self-expression, and/or social interaction (NASPE Standard 5 & 6).
    • Objective 10.04: Works cooperatively with others to complete task.

Grade 2

  • Goal 6: The learner will demonstrate competency in a variety of movement forms and proficiency in a few to gain competence towards lifetime physical activities (NASPE Standard 1).
    • Objective 6.02: Demonstrate manipulative skills such as throwing, catching, striking and trapping of objects while stationary and/or to a moving partner.
  • Goal 10: Exhibits responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and others at the same time as values physical activity for health, enjoyment, challenge, self-expression, and/or social interaction (NASPE Standard 5 & 6).
    • Objective 10.04: Work cooperatively with others to honestly complete work.

Grade 3

  • Goal 6: The learner will demonstrate competency in a variety of movement forms and proficiency in a few to gain competence towards lifetime physical activities (NASPE Standard 1).
    • Objective 6.04: Demonstrate the skills of throwing, catching, striking or trapping in an activity.