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An establishment in North Carolina.

Classes of employés. Unit of payment. Dates.
1880 1879 1878 1877 1876 1875 1874 1873 1872 1871 1870
Plug tobacco.
Sorter Day $0.80 $0.75 $0.75 $0.80 $0.80 $0.75 $0.75 $0.90 $1.00 $1.00 $1.00
Stripper do. .48 .48 .48 .48 .48 .45 .45 .48 .50 .50 .50
Caser do. 1.12½; 1.12½ 1.12½ 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.50 1.50 1.50
Plug-maker do. 2.00 2.00 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.25 2.50 2.50 2.75 2.75 2.75
Pressman do. 1.12½ 1.12½ 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.37½ 1.50 1.50 1.50
Packer do. 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.12½ 1.12½ 1.12½ 1.12½ 1.12½ 1.25 1.25 1.25
Laborer do. .87½ .87½ .87½ 1.00 1.00 .87½ .87½ .87½ 1.00 1.00 1.00
Twister do. 2.25 2.25 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.75 2.75 3.00 3.00 3.00

Remarks.—

At this establishment all the employés are colored.

There are some opportunities for extra earnings. Over-time is paid for at 5 per cent. additional to regular rates. In case of failure on the part of the firm to provide a full day’s work, employés are always paid for full time.

As is the custom at most establishments making cigars and tobacco, the employés are supplied with chewing tobacco for their own use without charges.

The average number of months worked for the last ten years has been 8½. Though this establishment is in North Carolina, the chief cause of the irregularity is the cold weather. Winter-made goods are not profitable. Labor also is hard to control in winter months. The closing month of the busy season is much dreaded by the employer. It is difficult to secure full time from the workmen, and an average yield is impossible. This will doubtless continue while living in this climate remains so cheap. The negro is fond of holidays and the leisure months are eagerly looked forward to. He is said to be inclined to regard a full year’s work as an encroachment upon his liberty.

The following are prices for the grades of tobacco made in the month of March, 1880, the internal revenue of 16 cents per pound being included:

Grade. Per pound.
Common tobacco $0.33
Medium tobacco .36
Low medium tobacco .40
Flue tobacco .540
Select fancy tobacco $0.75 to $1.00

The average labor cost per pound on all grades is 5½ cents. It is estimated that 1½ cent per pound will cover all additional expenses, wear and tear, taxes other than internal revenue, etc., leaving the balance for cost of material and profit.

An establishment in North Carolina.

Classes of employés. Unit of payment. Dates.
1881 1880 1879 1878 1877 1876 1875 1874 1873 1872 1871 1870 1869 1868 1867 1866 1865
Cigarettes.
Maker Per 1,000 $0.60
–.80
                               
Assorter Day .50                                
Packer Per 1,000 .10                                
Cutter do. .05                                
Smoking-tobacco.
Sorter Day $0.40 $0.40 $0.40 $0.40 $0.40 $0.40 $0.40 $0.40 $0.40 $0.40 $0.40 $0.40 $0.40 $0.40 $0.40 $0.40 $0.40
Stripper do. .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40
Caser do. .75 .75 .75 .75 .75 .75 .75 .75 .75 .75 .75 .75 .75 .75 .75 .75 .75
Cutter do. .75 .75 .75 .75 .75 .75 .75 .75 .75 .75 .75 .75 .75 .75 .75 .75 .75
Packer do. .50 .50 .50 .50 .50 .50 .50 .50 .50 .50 .50 .50 .50 .50 .50 .50 .50
Laborer do. .25

—.50
.25
—.50
.25
—.50
.25
—.50
.25
—.50
.25
—.50
.25
—.50
.25
—.50
.25
—.50
.25
—.50
.25
—.50
.25
—.50
.25
—.50
.25
—.50
.25
—.50
.25
—.50
.25
—.50

Remarks.—

This establishment began the manufacture of cigars in 1881; prior to that it had made smoking tobacco. In the years covered by the schedule there has been no change in the rates of wages, which, it will be noted, are extremely low. The employés are chiefly colored, and to a large extent are boys and girls.

At these works 10 per cent of the wages is paid in firewood and extra provisions, and the balance in cash.

The selling price of smoking tobacco is stated to be from 25 cents to $1 per pound, and cigars from $5 to $6 per M. The labor cost of smoking-tobacco is given at 1 cent per pound; of cigars, $1 per M.