LEARN NC is no longer supported by the UNC School of Education and has been permanently archived. On February 1st, 2018, you will only be able to access these resources through the Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine. We recommend that you print or download resources you may need before February 1st, 2018, after which, you will have to follow these instructions in order to access those resources.
|Europe and North Africa||The Pacific||In the U.S.||Media|
Germany withdraws from the Caucasus.
British forces defeat German troops at Tripoli, Lebanon.
Churchill and Roosevelt agree that the war can end only with Germany’s unconditional surrender.
The US begins bombing raids on Germany.
U.S. troops begin final offensive to clear Guadalcanal. By February 9 organized Japanese resistance on the island is ended. The American victory opens the way for other Allied gains in the Solomons.
Papuan Campaign ends in the first decisive land defeat of the Japanese.
|February||German forces surrender at Stalingrad — the first major defeat of a German army since the war began.||Shoes are rationed.|
German U-boats sink 27 merchant ships on the Atlantic between March 16 and 20.
Germans begin withdrawal from Tunisia in North Africa. In April, US and British forces meet in North Africa. From Tunisia, Allied forces can begin an invasion of Sicily and then Italy.
|An indecisive naval battle off the Komandorski Islands prepares the way for reconquest of the Western Aleutians. By mid-August Japanese troops have been driven out of both Attu and Kiska.||Food rationing is greatly expanded. Ration stamps are now required to purchase meats, cheese, canned milk, butter and other fats, and all canned and processed foods.|
|April||Jews in the Warsaw ghetto resist their deportation to concentration camps. Hitler’s Waffen-SS attacks on Passover, but resistance continues for a month.||Second War Loan drive begins.|
The Allies take Tunisia. German and Italian forces in North Africa surrender.
The Nazis take the Warsaw ghetto on May 16, and the remaining Jews there are removed to concentration camps.
Allied forces land in Sicily and capture Palermo.
Bombings of Rome begin, while Allies continue bombing Germany. Much of Hamburg is destroyed in a firestorm.
After defeats in Africa and Allied attacks, Italian armies are in disarray. Italian dictator Mussolini is forced from power and arrested, and the Fascist government of Italy falls. The new government begins negotiations with the Allies.
German troops evacuate Sicily.
US begins daylight bombing raids on German cities, demonstrating Allied air superiority.
|U.S. victories in the Solomon Islands.|
|September||Italy formally surrenders to the Allies, and Allied troops land on the Italian peninsula. But German forces occupy Rome, and Mussolini re-establishes a Fascist government.||Third War Loan drive begins.|
|October||Allied troops enter Naples. Italy declares war on Germany.|
|November||Soviets recapture Kiev in the Ukraine.||Central Pacific offensive to reconquer the Marshall, Gilbert, Caroline, Mariana, and Philippine Islands begins with army landings on Makin and Marine landings on Tarawa, the keystones of Japanese defenses in the Gilberts.|
|December||Soviet troops advance across the Ukraine, then (in January) into Poland.||Southwest Pacific offensive to secure the western Solomons, New Guinea, and the Philippines begins with the landings on New Britain, the largest island in the Bismarck Archipelago.|