K-12 Teaching and Learning From the UNC School of Education

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From the education reference

North Carolina thinking skills
Model of thinking skills adopted by the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction in 1994. Lists seven levels of thinking skills from simplest to most complex: knowledge, organizing, applying, analyzing, generating, integrating, and evaluating.
North Carolina Department of Public Instruction
The North Carolina Department of Public Instruction administers the policies adopted by the State Board of Education and offers instructional, financial, technological, and personnel support to all public school systems in the state.

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Beach accretion
In Hurricanes on sandy shorelines: Lessons for development, page 16
Figure 13 shows some more of the sand that was eroded off the Oak Island beach by Hurricane Floyd. It is a little hard to see, but if you look at the base of the stairs leading down from the deck of this house, you will see that sand covers at least the two...
By Dirk Frankenberg.
Overwash fan on Topsail Beach
In Small sand volume barrier islands: Environmental processes and development risks, page 10
Figure 8 shows an extensive overwash fan located behind the main road to North Topsail Beach. The sand that forms this feature was brought here during Hurricane Fran. It has increased the elevation of this back beach area, but only as a result of the flattening...
By Dirk Frankenberg.
Houses built too close to shore
In Hurricanes on sandy shorelines: Lessons for development, page 14
Figure 11 shows a row of houses near those in Figure 10. These were not set back far from the average high tide line. All of these houses are now on the upper edge of the beach, and sea water washes around their foundations at high tide. There is a real question...
By Dirk Frankenberg.
On and offshore sand movement
In Hurricanes on sandy shorelines: Lessons for development, page 4
Figure 1 is a diagram from the author's book entitled The Nature of North Carolina's Southern Coast, published by UNC press in 1997. The figure illustrates how sand is moved on...
By Dirk Frankenberg.
North Topsail Beach
In Small sand volume barrier islands: Environmental processes and development risks, page 9
Figure 7 begins our tour of North Topsail Beach, a developed, low sand volume area of Topsail Island. The photograph shows the same flat topography that we saw on Masonboro, but this time there is a condominium complex right on the berm. The flat dunefield...
By Dirk Frankenberg.
Dune erosion on Oak Island (2)
In Hurricanes on sandy shorelines: Lessons for development, page 12
Figure 9 shows another set of oceanfront houses after Hurricane Floyd's landfall. This dune, too, has been flattened, leaving some houses standing on the beach and some not standing at all. Note, however, that the beach under the house in the foreground is...
By Dirk Frankenberg.
Recreation and dune stability
In Natural and human impacts on the northern Outer Banks, page 15
The National Park Service has allowed nature to take its course at Coquina Beach. Although the palisade dunes built in the 1930s continue to buffer the beach from frequent overwash events, heavy recreational use has threatened the stability of the dunes. Humans...
By Blair Tormey and Dirk Frankenberg.
Overwash at Coquina Beach
In Natural and human impacts on the northern Outer Banks, page 14
During the Halloween Storm of 1991, the primary palisade dune at Coquina Beach was breached, causing extensive damage to the Park Service facilities. This overwash event filled the earlier bathhouse with sand and ripped up entire sections of what was once...
By Blair Tormey and Dirk Frankenberg.
Beach erosion
In Small sand volume barrier islands: Environmental processes and development risks, page 16
Figure 14 shows how beach erosion has undermined the deck and foundations of the houses in the foreground and apparently has threatened to do the same in the multifamily dwelling behind them. Note the remnants of an earlier dune on the right, and the roadway...
By Dirk Frankenberg.
Mid-tide beach
In Small sand volume barrier islands: Environmental processes and development risks, page 5
Figure 3 shows the mid-tide beach with evidence of recent accretion of sand to the upper beach. Look closely at the beach profile and you will see that the surface is slightly higher and more covered with shells both above and below the relatively shell-free...
By Dirk Frankenberg.
Hurricane overwash fan and houses
In Hurricanes on sandy shorelines: Lessons for development, page 15
Figure 12 shows some of the sand that was washed off the beach on Oak Island by Floyd. As we saw in the photos of Masonboro and Topsail Islands shown in Figures 6 and 7, some of Oak Island's beach sand ended up in an overwash fan landward of the original dune...
By Dirk Frankenberg.
Vegetation as a protective barrier
In Natural and human impacts on the northern Outer Banks, page 13
Vegetation on the dunes at Coquina Beach plays a crucial role in their ability to protect the island from storm overwash. Close inspection of the partially eroded primary dune offers a unique view of the anastomosing pattern of rhizomes that help to stabilize...
By Blair Tormey and Dirk Frankenberg.
Coquina Beach
In Natural and human impacts on the northern Outer Banks, page 12
Storm overwash is one of the more prevalent processes with which humans must cope on the Outer Banks. During storms, large volumes of sand are eroded from the seaward side of the islands and redeposited in large overwash fans, which extend landward across...
By Blair Tormey and Dirk Frankenberg.
Hurricane Floyd overwash
In Small sand volume barrier islands: Environmental processes and development risks, page 12
Figure 10 shows the result of an overwash event from Hurricane Floyd in 1999. The pile of vegetation and road tar in the right foreground is evidence of the destruction of a previously existing dune and parking area. In the middle distance we can see the beach...
By Dirk Frankenberg.
Houses set back from the shoreline
In Hurricanes on sandy shorelines: Lessons for development, page 13
Figure 10 shows another view of the Oak Island beach after Floyd. The beach here looks much like it did before the hurricane. The only real evidence of damage is the modest cliff formed at the front of the dunefield. There is no evidence of damage to shorefront...
By Dirk Frankenberg.
Ocean beaches
In Coastal processes and conflicts: North Carolina's Outer Banks, page 1.12
This lesson is part of chapter one of the unit "Coastal processes and conflicts: North Carolina's Outer Banks." Students learn about various materials found on the beaches of North Carolina's Outer Banks. They read about the processes that bring these materials to the beaches.
Format: lesson plan (grade 9–12 Science)
By Stanley R. Riggs, Dorothea Ames, and Karen Dawkins.
Masonboro Island
In Small sand volume barrier islands: Environmental processes and development risks, page 3
The two islands visited on this trip, Masonboro and Topsail, have very low sand volumes. Masonboro Island is a part of the National Research Reserve system and is completely undeveloped. Topsail Island has been developed for residential use and has the roads,...
By Dirk Frankenberg.
Beach and berm
In Small sand volume barrier islands: Environmental processes and development risks, page 4
Figure 2 shows another view of the same rather dull topography of beach and berm. A little life can be seen in the middle background where pioneering sand dune plants have established a precarious roothold. In the left background you can see where sand has...
By Dirk Frankenberg.
Accreting Beach after Floyd
Accreting Beach after Floyd
Format: image/photograph
The stairs of the Currituck Beach Lighthouse
The stairs of the Currituck Beach Lighthouse
These are the over 200 stairs of the Currituck Beach Lighthouse. The only lighthouse in North Carolina still housed in its original structure and one of only a dozen lighthouses nationwide with an original Fresnel lens still in use, the Currituck Beach Lighthouse...
Format: image/photograph