K-12 Teaching and Learning From the UNC School of Education

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North Carolina in the New South
Primary sources and readings explore North Carolina in the decades after the Civil War (1870–1900). Topics include changes in agriculture, the growth of cities and industry, the experiences of farmers and mill workers, education, cultural changes, politics and political activism, and the Wilmington Race Riot.
Format: book (multiple pages)
Tobacco workers strike
In North Carolina in the New South, page 3.12
Magazine article describing an unsuccessful strike by tobacco mill workers in Durham, North Carolina, 1881.
Format: magazine/primary source
Commentary and sidebar notes by L. Maren Wood.
"Card" Specialty
Students will make a greeting card for their pen pals or book buddies while studying specialization and division of labor in Social Studies.
Format: lesson plan (grade 3–5 Social Studies)
By Pat Pennino.
The Bonsack machine and labor unrest
In North Carolina in the New South, page 3.7
When the Duke tobacco company adopted the Bonsack machine for rolling cigarettes, workers who had rolled cigarettes by hand were thrown out of work, and their replacements made less money.
Format: article
Rice Harvest
Rice Harvest
Men and women, young and old are involved in harvesting rice. Harvesting is done with human labor. Rice is grown on 1.5 million hectares across Nepal yielding 2.6 tons per hectare, which is the lowest rice yield of any country in southern Asia. Advances in...
Format: image/photograph
Working with animals
In Rice farming and rural life in Vietnam, page 7
In addition to providing labor, water buffalo also sometimes are eaten at major community feasts. Traditionally, buffalo were a major source of wealth for Southeast Asian families. They still are favored in highland wet-rice areas where neither humans not...
By Lorraine Aragon.
An industry representative visits Loray Mills
In North Carolina in the early 20th century, page 8.3
Article from the Charlotte Observer during the Loray Mill strike in Gastonia, 1929. Includes historical background and commentary.
Format: newspaper/primary source
Commentary and sidebar notes by L. Maren Wood.
Child labor laws in North Carolina
In The Great Depression and World War II, page 2.2
Excerpt of North Carolina's 1933 law regulating child labor. Includes historical background.
Format: legislation/primary source
Commentary and sidebar notes by L. Maren Wood.
Nepalese men roofing a house
Nepalese men roofing a house
Two men are laying a stone roof on a house at Chandrakot, a village in western Nepal. The houses have stone walls and are flanked by bamboo on the left and a big bough of peepal tree on the right. In front is a small rooster. Mountain houses are typically...
Format: image/photograph
The Great Depression and World War II
Primary sources and readings explore the history of North Carolina and the United States during the Great Depression and World War II (1929–1945).
Format: book (multiple pages)
Child labor
In North Carolina in the early 20th century, page 7.1
In North Carolina History: A Sampler, page 7.7
Slideshow Lewis Hine, photographer for the National Child Labor Committee, documented child labor across...
Format: article
Sarah Crutcher, 12-year-old girl herding cattle
Sarah Crutcher, 12-year-old girl herding cattle
Twelve year old Sarah Crutcher sits astride a horse and herds cattle for her father, S.O. Crutcher, in Lawton, Oklahoma. The photographer wrote, "She was out of school (#49 Comanche County) only 2 weeks this year and that was to herd 100 head of cattle for...
Format: image/photograph
Tobacco bag stringing: Secondary activity seven
In this activity for grades 7–12, students take on the role of legislators who must make a decision concerning the passage of an amendment to the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938. Students will evaluate the impact of emotional appeal in persuasion. This activity builds on information learned in activities one through six.
Format: lesson plan (grade 8–12 English Language Arts and Social Studies)
By Pauline S. Johnson.
Work and protest: Voices
In North Carolina in the early 20th century, page 7.4
Excerpts from oral history interviews with textile mill workers about labor unrest in the 1920s and 1930s. Includes historical background.
Format: interview/primary source
Commentary and sidebar notes by L. Maren Wood.
Caring for children
In Rice farming and rural life in Vietnam, page 20
Throughout Southeast Asia, but especially in highland farming areas, children of both sexes are considered precious and vulnerable. Adults and teens of both sexes and all ages generally enjoy caring for young children. They find it an amusing and relaxing...
By Lorraine Aragon.
Doffers in Trenton Mills, Gastonia, N.C.
Doffers in Trenton Mills, Gastonia, N.C.
Four young boys called doffers can be seen pushing bins full of bobbins of thread through a textile mill in this photograph taken in 1908. Doffers replaced the full bobbins with empty ones in the spinning area of the mill. The sepia photograph shows the spinning...
Format: image/photograph
Herschel Bonham cultivating peas on a farm
Herschel Bonham cultivating peas on a farm
Herschel Bonham, wearing a long sleeved shirt and overalls, can be seen plowing behind a light colored horse in this photograph from Lawton, Oklahoma in the spring of 1917. He is cultivating peas on a farm. The photographer wrote that the eleven-year-old boy...
Format: image/photograph
Working in the fields
In Rice farming and rural life in Vietnam, page 5
Both men and women work in the wet-rice fields. Rural women living in highland Southeast Asia typically scale high mountains and do hard outdoor physical labor, which keeps them physically fit and strong. With one basket strapped at the waist and another larger...
By Lorraine Aragon.
Map skills and transportation careers
In CareerStart lessons: Grade six, page 4.1
In this lesson for grades six and seven, students will create maps to assist their understanding of relative and exact location and will conduct research on transportation careers.
Format: lesson plan (grade 6–7 Social Studies)
By Mandy Matlock.
One of the smallest doffers at Cherryville Manufacturing Company
One of the smallest doffers at Cherryville Manufacturing Company
One of the smallest children, a doffer, at the Cherryville Manufacturing Company can be seen in this photograph. He is wearing shorts and is barefoot and appears to be polishing a wooden stand which holds some of the spinning machinery. A young girl wearing...
Format: image/photograph