K-12 Teaching and Learning From the UNC School of Education

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A two-room mill house
A two-room mill house
Format: image/photograph
A four-room mill house with gable
A four-room mill house with gable
Format: image/diagram
A three-room narrow mill house
A three-room narrow mill house
Format: image/photograph
Plans for a four-room mill house with gable
Plans for a four-room mill house with gable
Format: image/diagram
Plans for a three-room narrow mill house
Plans for a three-room narrow mill house
Format: image/diagram
Plan for a two-room mill house
Plan for a two-room mill house
Format: image/diagram
Life in the mill villages
In North Carolina in the New South, page 3.3
By 1900, more than nine-tenths of textile workers lived in villages owned by the companies that employed them. Mill villages included stores, churches, and schools, but workers found ways to avoid too much dependence on their employers.
Format: article
By James Leloudis and Kathryn Walbert.
Mill village and factory: Voices
In North Carolina in the New South, page 3.5
In North Carolina History: A Sampler, page 5.2
Excerpts of oral history interviews with men and women who lived in mill villages and worked in textile mills in the early twentieth century.
Format: interview/primary source
White Oak Cotton Mills (postcard)
White Oak Cotton Mills (postcard)
Postcard shows the White Oak Cotton Mills (a division of Greensboro-based Cone Mills) and several houses in the mill village. A river runs between the mill and the village.
Format: image/ephemera
Gasoline-powered grain mill
Gasoline-powered grain mill
A gasoline-powered grain mill seen en route from Naudanda to Birethanti, Nepal. A man, probably the mill-runner, is sitting at the other end of the machine, with a patterned dhaka cap worn askew on his head. Machine powered mills are evidence of modernization...
Format: image/photograph
The strikers move into tents
In North Carolina in the early 20th century, page 8.5
Article from the Gastonia Daily Gazette printed during the Loray Mill strike, 1929. Striking workers were thrown out of their houses, which were owned by the mill. Includes historical background and commentary.
Format: newspaper/primary source
Commentary and sidebar notes by L. Maren Wood.
Hanes spinning plant and mill village, 1910
Hanes spinning plant and mill village, 1910
P. H. Hanes spinning plant and mill village on the Clemmons Road, 1910. Photo shows a few of the new homes in the village. The company store is at left. Road later known as South Stratford Road.
Format: image/photograph
Mill villages
In North Carolina in the New South, page 3.4
In North Carolina History: A Sampler, page 7.4
Excerpt from D. A. Tompkins' 1899 textbook for cotton mill owners, explaining rationale and design for millworkers' housing. Includes photographs, plans, and historical commentary.
Format: book/primary source
An industry representative visits Loray Mills
In North Carolina in the early 20th century, page 8.3
Article from the Charlotte Observer during the Loray Mill strike in Gastonia, 1929. Includes historical background and commentary.
Format: newspaper/primary source
Commentary and sidebar notes by L. Maren Wood.
Child labor in North Carolina's textile mills
The photographs of Lewis Hine show the lives and work of children in North Carolina's textile mill villages in the first decades of the twentieth century.
Format: slideshow (multiple pages)
North Carolina in the New South
Primary sources and readings explore North Carolina in the decades after the Civil War (1870–1900). Topics include changes in agriculture, the growth of cities and industry, the experiences of farmers and mill workers, education, cultural changes, politics and political activism, and the Wilmington Race Riot.
Format: book (multiple pages)
Ila Hartsell Dodson oral history excerpt (labor unions)
Ila Hartsell Dodson was born in 1907 in South Carolina and began working in the Brandon Cotton Mill at age 14. Her mother, father, and all of her nine siblings worked for various cotton mills in North and South Carolina. She met her husband working in the...
Format: audio/interview
North Carolina history: Grade 4 educator's guide
This educator's guide provides teaching suggestions designed to facilitate using the digital North Carolina history textbook with fourth-grade students.
Format: (multiple pages)
Ila Hartsell Dodson oral history excerpt (child labor)
Ila Hartsell Dodson was born in 1907 in South Carolina and began working in the Brandon Cotton Mill at age 14. Her mother, father, and all of her nine siblings worked for various cotton mills in North and South Carolina. She met her husband working in the...
Format: audio/interview
White Oak Cotton Mills: Notice!
White Oak Cotton Mills: Notice!
NOTICE! Prizes will be awarded as usual this year for the best front yards and neatest kept premises. In planting vines and shrubbery at the various houses, the company does not mean or intend to take the control or arrangement of the front yards...
Format: image/poster