K-12 Teaching and Learning From the UNC School of Education

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The 1868 constitution
In North Carolina in the Civil War and Reconstruction, page 9.11
In accordance with the Reconstruction Acts, North Carolina wrote a new constitution in 1868. In addition to abolishing slavery, the new constitution gave more power to the people and to the governor, and called for free public schools, state prisons, and charitable institutions.
Format: article
By David Walbert.
Address to the Colored People of North Carolina
In North Carolina in the Civil War and Reconstruction, page 10.7
1870 broadside urging African Americans to support Governor William Woods Holden, then facing impeachment for his use of the militia to stop Ku Klux Klan violence. Includes historical commentary.
Format: poster/primary source
Commentary and sidebar notes by David Walbert.
African Americans get the vote in eastern North Carolina
In North Carolina in the Civil War and Reconstruction, page 9.9
After the Civil War, African American communities in eastern North Carolina, having already tasted freedom during the war, were ready to fight for political rights.
Format: article
Amending the U.S. Constitution
In North Carolina in the Civil War and Reconstruction, page 9.8
Text of the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth amendments to the U.S. Constitution, passed after the Civil War to abolish slavery and to guarantee the civil rights of African Americans.
Format: constitution/primary source
Commentary and sidebar notes by L. Maren Wood.
Amnesty letters
In North Carolina in the Civil War and Reconstruction, page 9.5
Letters from North Carolinians to President Andrew Johnson asking for amnesty after the Civil War. Includes historical commentary.
Format: letter/primary source
Commentary and sidebar notes by L. Maren Wood.
Catherine Edmondston and Reconstruction
In North Carolina in the Civil War and Reconstruction, page 9.7
Excerpts from the diary of Catherine Edmonston of Halifax County, North Carolina, 1865–66, in which she describes her frustration with emancipation and her family's attempts to control its former slaves. Includes historical commentary. Note: This source contains explicit language or content that requires mature discussion.
Format: diary/primary source
Commentary and sidebar notes by L. Maren Wood.
Charges of abuse
In North Carolina in the Civil War and Reconstruction, page 8.9
Report of Freedmen's Bureau officials on charges of abuse of former slaves by their former owners in Wilson County, North Carolina, 1865. Includes historical commentary. Note: This source contains explicit language or content that requires mature discussion.
Format: report/primary source
The compromise of 1877
In North Carolina in the Civil War and Reconstruction, page 10.8
After the disputed presidential election of 1876, Democrats in Congress agreed to certify a majority vote for Republican Rutherford B. Hayes if Republicans agreed to end military reconstruction.
Format: article
Conservative opposition
In North Carolina in the Civil War and Reconstruction, page 10.2
Newspaper editorial attacking the Reconstruction-era Republican majority in North Carolina as incompetent and corrupt. Includes historical commentary.
Format: newspaper/primary source
The Freedmen's Bureau
In North Carolina in the Civil War and Reconstruction, page 8.5
Report by Louisa Jacobs on her and her mother Harriet's work to educate freed people in Savannah, Georgia, after the Civil War. Includes historical commentary.
Format: letter/primary source
Governor Holden speaks out against the Ku Klux Klan
In North Carolina in the Civil War and Reconstruction, page 10.4
Speech by North Carolina Governor William Woods Holden to the General Assembly, December 1869, asking for the power to declare martial law where needed to stop the violence of the Ku Klux Klan. Includes historical commentary.
Format: letter/primary source
John Adams Hyman
In North Carolina in the Civil War and Reconstruction, page 9.12
John Adams Hyman, a former slave, became the first black U.S. Representative from North Carolina, serving from 1873 to 1875.
Format: biography
Johnson's Amnesty Proclamation
In North Carolina in the Civil War and Reconstruction, page 9.4
In May 1865, President Andrew Johnson offered amnesty to most former Confederate soldiers, excepting high-ranking officers, some politicians, and the wealthiest Confederates. Original source includes historical commentary.
Format: proclamation/primary source
Commentary and sidebar notes by David Walbert and L. Maren Wood.
The Kirk-Holden War
In North Carolina in the Civil War and Reconstruction, page 10.5
In response to Ku Klux Klan violence during Reconstruction, North Carolina Governor William Woods Holden declared martial law in Alamance and Caswell counties in 1870. The militia, led by former Union Col. George W. Kirk, rounded up Klan leaders in what opponents called the "Kirk-Holden War."
Format: article
Lincoln's plans for reconstruction
In North Carolina in the Civil War and Reconstruction, page 7.5
In Abraham Lincoln's second inaugural address, with the Civil War nearly over, Lincoln called for reconciliation between North and South.
Format: speech/primary source
Commentary and sidebar notes by David Walbert and L. Maren Wood.
Making marriages legal
In North Carolina in the Civil War and Reconstruction, page 8.8
Marriage certificate issued by the Freedmen's Bureau, making legal the marriage of two former slaves. Includes historical commentary.
Format: document
Military reconstruction
In North Carolina in the Civil War and Reconstruction, page 9.10
First Reconstrution Act, passed by Congress over President Johnson's veto in 1867, which established military rule in the former Confederacy until states were formally readmitted to the Union. Includes historical commentary.
Format: legislation/primary source
Commentary and sidebar notes by L. Maren Wood.
The murder of "Chicken" Stephens
In North Carolina in the Civil War and Reconstruction, page 10.6
Contemporary newspaper account of the murder of State Senator John. W. "Chicken" Stephens of Caswell County, by members of the Ku Klux Klan. Includes historical commentary.
Format: newspaper/primary source
North Carolina in the Civil War and Reconstruction
Primary sources and readings explore North Carolina during the Civil War and Reconstruction (1860–1876). Topics include debates over secession, battles and strategies, the war in North Carolina, the soldier's experience, the home front, freedom and civil rights for former slaves, Reconstruction, and the "redemption" of the state by conservatives.
Format: book (multiple pages)
The Raleigh Freedmen's Convention
In North Carolina in the Civil War and Reconstruction, page 8.6
Declaration of the statewide convention of freedman held in Raleigh, North Carolina, September 29-October 3, 1866. Includes historical commentary.
Format: declaration/primary source