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About the Archaeology Primer
In Excavating Occaneechi Town: An archaeology primer, page 1
The Occaneechi Indians were once prominent in the Virginia and Carolina Piedmont. As their numbers were reduced by clashes with European colonists, they retreated to a village on the Eno River. Their numbers further dwindled due to disease and warfare, and by 1730 the Occaneechi were all but gone. In 1983, archaeologists discovered a village site near Hillsborough, North Carolina. Through a series of digs, they confirmed that they had found Occaneechi Town.
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Ancient pit contents
Ancient pit contents
Ancient refuse at the bottom of a pit.
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Ancient pits
Ancient pits
Photograph of students revealing ancient pits by troweling the top of subsoil.
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Ancient post holes
Ancient post holes
Photograph of students revealing ancient post holes by troweling the top of subsoil.
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Artifacts found by waterscreening
Artifacts found by waterscreening
Small artifacts recovered by waterscreening.
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Backfilling the Occaneechi Town excavation
Backfilling the Occaneechi Town excavation
Student backfilling an archaeological excavation.
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Bayon Temple tower wall with carved stone faces in profile at Angkor Thom
Bayon Temple tower wall with carved stone faces in profile at Angkor Thom
This view of Bayon Temple tower walls at Angkor Thom reveals two carved stone faces in profile. The one in foreground at left is covered with lichen and harder to discern from the surrounding stone walls. Such huge and serenely smiling faces are carved on...
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Bear painting on major temple interior wall
Bear painting on major temple interior wall
Painting of a bear on an interior wall of the major temple at Town Creek Indian Mound. The recreated temple approximates the most important house of worship at Town Creek. Each wall is painted with an image of a different animal, representing the town's different...
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Bones from Kennewick Man
Bones from Kennewick Man
In 1996, the skeletal remains of a prehistoric man were found on the bank of the Columbia River near Kennewick, Washington. An archaeologist determined that the man -- referred to as "Kennewick Man" -- had lived 9,200 years ago and died of a projectile wound...
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Burial
Burial
Photograph of a burial, a common archaeological feature at Occaneechi Town. Burials are pits, usually oval or rectangular in shape and often quite deep, that were dug as individual graves. They contain the skeletal remains and accompanying funerary objects...
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Carved relief of four dancing female divinities with spiked crowns at Angkor Wat
Carved relief of four dancing female divinities with spiked crowns at Angkor  Wat
Four dancing female divinities with spiked crowns appear together on a carved stone bas-relief at Angkor Wat. These dancing female divinities (each called an "apsaras") are said to be created for the entertainment of the Hindu gods. They often are recognizable...
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Carved stone reliefs of Garuda supporting Elephant Terrace at Angkor Thom
Carved stone reliefs of Garuda supporting Elephant Terrace at Angkor Thom
Carved stone reliefs of Garuda, a Hindu mythical bird who transports the god Vishnu, appear to support the Elephant Terrace at Angkor Thom, literally the "Great City." This high stone platform now called the Elephant Terrace (because of its elephant carvings)...
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Cham tower overgrown by vegetation south of Hai An
Cham tower overgrown by vegetation south of Hai An
A damaged brick and stone Cham tower stands overgrown by vegetation in a rural area south of Hai An. Tall arched forms are characteristic of these monuments built by ethnic Chams between the seventh and twelfth century A.D. Maritime trade between India and...
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Cham tower seen through an archway in Po Nagar complex at Nha Trang
Cham tower seen through an archway in Po Nagar complex at Nha Trang
A Cham tower with ascending smaller levels and rounded corner towers is seen through an archway in the Po Nagar complex at Nha Trang. Tall arched forms are characteristic of these monuments built of brick and stone by ethnic Chams between the seventh and twelfth...
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Cham tower with repair scaffolding in Po Nagar complex at Nha Trang
Cham tower with repair scaffolding in Po Nagar complex at Nha Trang
Scaffolds allowing workers to climb and make repairs are seen at the right and left sides of one of the main Cham towers in the Po Nagar complex at Nha Trang. Tall arched forms are characteristic of these monuments built of brick and stone by ethnic Chams...
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Common artifacts: Animal bones
Common artifacts: Animal bones
Animal bones were commonly found in archaeological features at the Fredricks site at Occaneechi Town. Most of these bones are from animals that were hunted or caught for food (such as deer, bear, raccoon, turkey, and fish).
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Common artifacts: Brick fragments
Common artifacts: Brick fragments
These small brick fragments found in the plowed soil at Occaneechi Town are associated with European settlement in the area after about 1750.
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Common artifacts: Charcoal
Common artifacts: Charcoal
Charcoal was commonly found in archaeological features at the Fredricks site at Occaneechi Town. Most of this charcoal is from wood used as fuel; however, plants that were grown or collected for food also are amply represented by seeds, nutshells, and (occasionally)...
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Common artifacts: Chipped-stone projectile points
Common artifacts: Chipped-stone projectile points
Photograph of chipped-stone projectile points found at Occaneechi Town. The Occaneechi and their predecessors used the bow-and-arrow as a weapon. Their arrows were tipped with small triangular points that were chipped from stone. Much earlier inhabitants of...
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Common artifacts: Clay pipe fragments
Common artifacts: Clay pipe fragments
Photograph of clay pipe fragments found at Occaneechi Town. The Occaneechi smoked tobacco, and possibly other plants. This is reflected by the numerous clay pipe-stem and pipe-bowl fragments that were found. Some of these were made by Native Americans (probably...
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