K-12 Teaching and Learning From the UNC School of Education

LEARN NC was a program of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Education from 1997 – 2013. It provided lesson plans, professional development, and innovative web resources to support teachers, build community, and improve K-12 education in North Carolina. Learn NC is no longer supported by the School of Education – this is a historical archive of their website.

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Balinese dancer performing as red monkey king, Sugriva
Balinese dancer performing as red monkey king, Sugriva
A male dancer plays the red monkey king named Sugriva at a Ramayana performance in Ubud Village on Bali Island in August 1986. The Balinese dancer steps forward in an active male pose with his arms held out to the side and slightly forward. His thumbs and...
Format: image/photograph
Balinese masked dancer costumed as Sugriva the red monkey king
Balinese masked dancer costumed as Sugriva the red monkey king
A Balinese masked dancer is costumed as Sugriva, the red monkey king character from the Ramayana. Seen from the waist up, the male dancer wears a red knit shirt, elaborate sequined collar, gold crown, and a fanged wooden mask running from his nose down to...
Format: image/photograph
Balinese painting of Hanuman courting Ravana's mermaid daughter
Balinese painting of Hanuman courting Ravana's mermaid daughter
A red-toned modern Balinese painting depicts Hanuman courting Ravana's mermaid daughter. Swooping above moonlit waves and an open-mouthed fish in the sea, Hanuman carries the beautiful mermaid in his outstretched arms. Hanuman's and the mermaid's faces are...
Format: image/photograph
The battle continues
In The Ramayana, page 3.8
This detail of a mural at the Emerald Buddha Temple, where Hanuman descends lithely down poles beside a circular well to seize the guards, shows how the powerful and clever monkey god can single-handedly defeat the hapless demons who defend Ravana's palace....
By Lorraine Aragon.
A bridge of stone
In The Ramayana, page 4.8
A carved stone stele at Prambanan Temple shows monkeys helping Rama by bringing stones for the bridge he wants to build to Ravana's demon island of Lanka. Realistically portrayed, the naked monkeys in this carved bas relief walk together in line carrying rounded...
By Lorraine Aragon.
Brown Monkey King striding with sword (Thai Ramayana mural)
Brown Monkey King striding with sword (Thai Ramayana mural)
In this mural from the Emerald Buddha Temple, the Brown Monkey King strides boldly with his right hand grasping his downward sword. The monkey king's head and legs are shown in profile but his torso is rotated so that his shoulders face front. The Brown Monkey...
Format: image/photograph
Dancer dressed as Sugriva the red monkey king at performance in Ubud, Bali, Indonesia
Dancer dressed as Sugriva the red monkey king at performance in Ubud, Bali, Indonesia
A dancer is costumed as Sugriva, the red monkey king, at an August 1986 performance in Ubud Village on the island of Bali in Indonesia. He wears a carved and painted red wooden mask with large monkey fangs. The mask covers his face below the eyes. Long black...
Format: image/photograph
Demon on Lanka emerges from underground (Thai Ramayana mural)
Demon on Lanka emerges from underground (Thai Ramayana mural)
A demon on Lanka emerges from underground, as portrayed on a mural at the Emerald Buddha Temple. This dark and fierce demon, whose top half is seen as if from above, has small tusks and curly hair. He is wearing a gold headdress and arm bands as he pushes...
Format: image/photograph
Detail of four-armed Hanuman fighting (Thai Ramayana mural)
Detail of four-armed Hanuman fighting (Thai Ramayana mural)
This detail from a painted Ramayana mural at the Emerald Buddha Temple shows the monkey god Hanuman perching on his arms upside down as he fights valiantly in the service of Prince Rama. Descending from a boulder, Hanuman wields swords and knives with his...
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Giant Hanuman uses his tail as bridge for Rama's army (Thai Ramayana mural)
Giant Hanuman uses his tail as bridge for Rama's army (Thai Ramayana mural)
Hanuman uses his tail as a bridge for Rama's army, as seen on a mural at the Emerald Buddha Temple. On the way to Lanka to rescue Sita, Rama's army cannot cross a wide river. Hanuman, who is able to change his form, enlarges himself enough that his tail can...
Format: image/photograph
God mediates dispute between Rama and Ravana (Thai Ramayana mural)
God mediates dispute between Rama and Ravana (Thai Ramayana mural)
The God of Justice, Maleevaraj, mediates between Rama and Ravana, as seen on a mural at the Emerald Buddha Temple. After years of incessant fighting, Rama and Ravana's dispute over Sita is brought before a divine judge as a legal case. Maleevaraj the Just...
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Hanuman attacks Ravana's palace
In The Ramayana, page 3.7
In this detail image from an Emerald Buddha Temple mural, Hanuman in royal garb clambers over the head of an elephant outside a white wall of Ravana's palace. The bodies of two fallen demon guards are seen at each side of the frame. After locating Sita and...
By Lorraine Aragon.
Hanuman battles demon blocking river (Thai Ramayana mural)
Hanuman battles demon blocking river (Thai Ramayana mural)
Hanuman battles a giant demon in the current of a river, as seen in a mural at the Emerald Buddha Temple. Wielding a trident dagger in his left hand, a huge white Hanuman steps on the shoulder of a giant green-skinned demon fallen in the river. The demon was...
Format: image/photograph
Hanuman battles fish taking stone from Rama's bridge (Thai Ramayana mural)
Hanuman battles fish taking stone from Rama's bridge (Thai Ramayana mural)
Hanuman fights a large fish who is taking a stone from Rama's bridge to Lanka. Hanuman stands on the green fish's head as he pulls his upper jaw open to release the stone that the fish has seized from the bridge Rama's allies were building to get to Lanka....
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Hanuman battles his half-mermaid son
In The Ramayana, page 5.12
Hanuman faces his mermaid son in battle, as seen on a mural detail at the Emerald Buddha Temple. On the right side, Hanuman, in his wide-legged stance, holds a sword in his left hand while he points his right index finger at his enemy. A fish-tailed creature,...
By Lorraine Aragon.
Hanuman battles the demon giant
In The Ramayana, page 5.6
Hanuman battles a giant demon in the current of a river, as seen in a mural at the Emerald Buddha Temple. Wielding a trident dagger in his left hand, a huge white Hanuman steps on the shoulder of a giant green-skinned demon fallen in the river. The demon was...
By Lorraine Aragon.
Hanuman charms Ravana's mermaid daughter
In The Ramayana, page 4.12
A red-toned modern Balinese painting depicts Hanuman courting Ravana's mermaid daughter. Swooping above moonlit waves and an open-mouthed fish in the sea, Hanuman carries the beautiful mermaid in his outstretched arms. Hanuman's and the mermaid's faces are...
By Lorraine Aragon.
Hanuman charms Ravana's mermaid daughter (Thai Ramayana mural)
Hanuman charms Ravana's mermaid daughter (Thai Ramayana mural)
Hanuman charms Ravana's mermaid daughter, as seen in a detail on a painted mural at the Emerald Buddha Temple. In his royal Siamese clothing, Hanuman stands on the tail of the beautiful mermaid as she floats in gentle blue waves. Hanuman holds the mermaid's...
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Hanuman climbs mountain for herbal medicines (Thai Ramayana mural)
Hanuman climbs mountain for herbal medicines (Thai Ramayana mural)
Hanuman climbs a mountain to obtain herbal medicine ingredients, as seen in a mural at the Emerald Buddha Temple. A giant white Hanuman scales a mountain about double his height to find medicinal herbs for Laksman. Hanuman's arms are stretched upward and he...
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Hanuman courts Ravana's mermaid daughter in cave (Thai Ramayana mural)
Hanuman courts Ravana's mermaid daughter in cave (Thai Ramayana mural)
Hanuman courts Ravana's mermaid daughter in a waterside cave, as seen on a mural at the Emerald Buddha Temple. Standing behind the mermaid, Hanuman embraces her as she perches gracefully with her tail balanced to the left. Hanuman enjoys a tryst with Ravana's...
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